Overview

Distribution

Range

Pakistan to Myanmar and w Thailand.

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Geographic Range

Rain quail are found in India, Sri Lanka,and Myanmar.

Biogeographic Regions: oriental (Native ); australian (Native )

  • Harper, D. 1986. Pet Birds for Home and Garden. London: Salamander Books Ltd.
  • Kuz'mina, M. 1992. Tetraonidae and Phasianidae of the USSR: Ecology and Morphology. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries.
  • Robbins, G. 1979. Quail in captivity. Avicultural Magazine, 85(4): 217-223.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Rain quail are approximately 15 cm (Robbins, 1979; Harper, 1986) to 16 cm (Alderton, 1992) in length. The male's wing and tail measurements are 93 to 96 mm and 29 to 32 mm, respectively. The females' wings are 90 to 97 mm and their tails are 28 to 31 mm (Johnsgard, 1988). Males have black throat markings and their breast feathers are buff with black streaking. The streaking becomes a patch as the bird increases in age (Finn, 1911). Females lack these markings (Harper, 1986).

Range length: 15 to 16 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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These quail are found in monsoonal areas (Finn, 1911) and open grasslands (Kuz'mina, 1992). They are terrestrial birds and are adapted to tropical areas (Harper, 1986). They may be found at heights of 2000 to 2500 m in the Himalayas (Johnsgard, 1988; Alderton, 1992).

Range elevation: 2500 (high) m.

Habitat Regions: tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; mountains

  • Johnsgard, P. 1988. The Quails, Partridges, and Francolins of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Alderton, D. 1992. The Atlas of Quails. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications.
  • Finn, F. 1911. Game Birds of India and Asia. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.
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Trophic Strategy

Food Habits

Rain quail eat grass and weed seeds as well as small insects and insect larvae (Finn, 1911; Johnsgard, 1988; Alderton, 1992).

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: seeds, grains, and nuts

Primary Diet: omnivore

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

Rain quail have an impact on the plants and insects they eat.

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Predation

We do not have information on predation for this species at this time.

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Known prey organisms

Coturnix coromandelica preys on:
Insecta

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Males utter a two note call that sounds like "whit-whit" (Finn, 1911).

Communication Channels: acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

We do not have information on lifespan/longevity for this species at this time.

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Reproduction

The pair-bond of rain quail is very strong (Johnsgard, 1988).

Mating System: monogamous

Breeding occurs during the wet season and depends on local rainfall patterns. Generally, rain quail breed from March to October. Their nests are constructed in standing crops or thin grasses in unlined hollows in the ground (Finn, 1911) and are sometimes hidden in scrub, low bush (Johnsgard, 1988), or grass (Alderton, 1992).

Clutch size is usually four to six eggs, occasionally more may be laid (Alderton, 1992). Sometimes more than one female lays eggs in a single nest. The eggs are approximately 27.4 mm by 20.8 mm and weigh 6.5 g (Johnsgard, 1988). Incubation usually lasts 16 (Alderton, 1992) to 17 days (Robbins, 1979), but may last 18 to 19 days (Johnsgard, 1988). The chicks remain with their parents for approximately eight months (Johnsgard, 1988).

Breeding interval: Rain quail breed yearly

Breeding season: March to October

Range eggs per season: 4 to 6.

Range time to hatching: 16 (low) days.

Average time to hatching: 19 days.

Average time to independence: 8 months.

Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization (Internal )

Incubation usually lasts 16 (Alderton, 1992) to 17 days (Robbins, 1979), and may last 18 to 19 days (Johnsgard, 1988). Males sometimes become aggressive soon after the chicks hatch (Alderton, 1992). Males have been reported to help females in the care of the brood. Chicks are precocial and remain with their parents for approximately eight months (Johnsgard, 1988).

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; precocial ; pre-fertilization; pre-hatching/birth (Protecting); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female)

  • Johnsgard, P. 1988. The Quails, Partridges, and Francolins of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Alderton, D. 1992. The Atlas of Quails. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications.
  • Finn, F. 1911. Game Birds of India and Asia. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.
  • Robbins, G. 1979. Quail in captivity. Avicultural Magazine, 85(4): 217-223.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Rain quail are not listed by either the IUCN or Cites.

CITES: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is apparently widespread and generally common (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Fuller et al. 2000).

Population Trend
Stable
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

There are no known adverse affects of rain quail on humans.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

Sometimes, these quail are kept in aviaries.

Positive Impacts: pet trade

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Wikipedia

Rain Quail

Drawing of the head of a rain quail

The rain quail or black-breasted quail (Coturnix coromandelica) is a species of quail found in the Indian Subcontinent.

Distribution[edit]

Male rain quail

Grassland, cropped fields, and scrubs in the Indus valley of central Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan, ranging across the Gangetic plains, and parts of peninsular continental India. Mostly seen in winter further south.

Description[edit]

The rain quail lacks barring on primaries. The male has a black breast-patch and distinctive head pattern of black and white. The female is difficult to separate from female common quail and Japanese quail, although the spots on the breast are more delicate. It is 6–6.5 in (15–17 cm) and weighs roughly 2.25–2.5 oz (64–71 g)[2]

The call is a metallic chrink-chrink, constantly repeated mornings and evenings, and in the breeding season also during the night. It is quite unmistakably distinct from the call of the common grey quail.[3][4]

Breeding[edit]

  • Season: overall March to October, but chiefly after the break of the southwesterly monsoon in June.
  • Nest: Eggs are laid in a scrape in the ground, sometimes in the open under a Euphorbia or similar bush. A clutch of 6 to 8 eggs are laid, resembling those of grey quail but smaller. Only the female incubates.

Cited references[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Coturnix coromandelica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Jerdon, T.C. (1864). The Birds of India III. Calcutta: George Wyman and Co. p. 589. 
  3. ^ Rasmussen, P.C. and J. C. Anderton 2005. Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions.
  4. ^ Ali, Salim; J C Daniel (1983). The book of Indian Birds, Twelfth Centenary edition. New Delhi: Bombay Natural History Society/Oxford University Press. 

Other references[edit]


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