Overview

Distribution

Stubble quail are found in two separate areas in Australia. One population is in the southeast, and the other, larger population, is in the southwestern part of the country (Alderton, 1992).

Biogeographic Regions: australian (Native )

  • Alderton, D. 1992. The Atlas of Quails. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications.
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Range

Grasslands of Australia and Tasmania.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Morphology

Stubble quail are 17.5 cm in length (Alderton, 1992) and weigh 99 to 128 g. Adult wing and tail lengths are 104 to 117 mm and 38 to 46 mm, respectively (Johnsgard, 1988).

Males and females are dark brown above with vertical buff streaking. The breast and abdomen are buff with brown to black streaking on the females' breast and heavier streaking and a black patch on males. Both males and females have white eye stripes topped with a thin dark brownish to black stripe. The crown is dark brown for both sexes. The throat and sides of the head are a tawny brown on males and a light brown on females (Alderton, 1992).

Range mass: 99 to 128 g.

Average length: 17.5 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Stubble quail inhabit a variety of temperate, terrestrial environments including agricultural areas and well-drained plains (Johnsgard, 1988; Alderton, 1992). The availability of water is a determinant of their habitat preference (Alderton, 1992).

Habitat Regions: temperate ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland

Other Habitat Features: agricultural

  • Johnsgard, P. 1988. The Quails, Partridges, and Francolins of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Trophic Strategy

Stubble quail are chiefly seed eaters (Alderton, 1992). They prefer seeds of cultivated cereals, grasses, and weeds. They also consume leafy materials and a very small number of insects (Johnsgard, 1988).

Animal Foods: insects

Plant Foods: leaves; seeds, grains, and nuts

Primary Diet: herbivore (Granivore )

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Associations

Stubble quail have an impact on the plants and insects they consume.

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We do not have information on predation for this species at this time.

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Known prey organisms

Coturnix pectoralis preys on:
Insecta

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

The male utters a whistled, three-note or four-note advertisement call given as "chuch-ee-whit" or "chip-a-terweet." In addition, sometimes a sharp two-note "to-weep" is uttered. These quail will abruptly flush and land with a loud whirring of their wings (Johnsgard, 1988).

Communication Channels: acoustic

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Life Expectancy

We do not have information on the lifespan/longevity of this species at this time.

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Reproduction

We do not have information on mating systems for this species at this time.

Breeding depends on food availability and rainfall (Johnsgard, 1988).

Eggs are approximately 30.3 mm by 23.4 mm and weigh 9.2 g. There are six to eleven eggs per clutch, and incubation lasts 18 to 21 days (Johnsgard, 1988). The chicks are considered to be mature after four months (Alderton, 1992).

Range eggs per season: 6 to 11.

Range time to hatching: 18 to 21 days.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4 months.

Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4 months.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

Chicks are precocial.

Parental Investment: no parental involvement; precocial ; pre-fertilization

  • Alderton, D. 1992. The Atlas of Quails. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications.
  • Johnsgard, P. 1988. The Quails, Partridges, and Francolins of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Coturnix pectoralis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACCGATGACTATTCTCAACCAACCACAAAGACATTGGCACTCTTTATTTAATTTTCGGCACATGAGCAGGCATAGCCGGTACAGCACTT---AGCCTGTTAATCCGCGCAGAACTAGGACAACCAGGTACCCTCCTAGGAGAC---GACCAAATTTATAATGTAATTGTCACAGCACATGCCTTCGTCATAATCTTCTTTATAGTTATACCAATCATGATCGGAGGCTTCGGAAACTGACTCGTCCCACTTATA---ATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTTCCACGTATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCCTCCTTCCTCCTTCTACTAGCTTCCTCCACCGTTGAAGCTGGTGCCGGTACAGGATGAACCGTTTACCCACCCCTAGCCGGCAACCTCGCCCATGCTGGGGCATCAGTAGATTTA---GCCATCTTTTCCCTACACCTAGCAGGTGTATCATCAATCCTAGGAGCTATCAACTTCATCACCACCATTATCAATATAAAACCCCCTGCACTATCACAATATCAAACACCCTTATTTGTTTGATCAGTCCTCATCACTGCCATTCTACTTCTACTCTCCCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCC---GGCATTACTATGCTTCTTACTGACCGAAATCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Coturnix pectoralis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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