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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Eudocimus albus, the white ibis, is a member of the Order Ciconiiformes (herons and storks). It is a long necked wading bird in which the sexes are similar in appearance. Major identifying characteristics include its long decurved bill, longer in males than in females; entirely white body coloration, pink bill, and legs, black tipped outer primary feathers, and distinctive bare face which ranges in shades from red to pink. The eyes of adults are blue.
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Distribution

The White Ibis breeds in the coastal region of Virginia, south and west to Louisiana, including inland S. Carolina through Florida. It also breeds along the entire coast of Mexico, Belize, Nicaragua, Cuba, Jamaica, Panama, and Costa Rica. Their non-breeding range extends only slightly deeper into inland Louisiana, Georgia, and S. Carolina.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Range

southern United States south through Central America and the Greater Antilles to northwestern South America.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Resident from central Baja California, central Sinaloa, southern and eastern Texas, southern Louisiana, Florida, southeastern Georgia, and coastal North Carolina (rarely Virginia) south along coasts and through Greater Antilles to French Guiana and northwestern Peru. Wanders casually north. (AOU 1983). In the U.S., the highest winter densities occur in Florida and around the mouth of the Mississippi River (Root 1988).

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In the continental United States, Eudocimus albus, the white ibis, occurs from Virginia south along the Atlantic coast to the Gulf of Mexico. It is found on both coasts of Mexico, and ranges as far south as Columbia and Brazil. The white ibis is distributed throughout the Indian River Lagoon.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Resembling the Great Blue Heron in body shape, the White Ibis is a medium-sized wading bird. Its feathers are entirely white, except for its dark wing tips. The face of the ibis is bare and pink, blending into its long, curved bill, which is brown at the tip. It has long pink legs, which end with webbed toes. The adults eyes are light blue.

Other Physical Features: endothermic ; bilateral symmetry

Average mass: 940 g.

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Size

Length: 64 cm

Weight: 1036 grams

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The white ibis is a medium sized wading bird that attains a height of 22 inches, with a wingspan of 38 inches. It may live as long as 16 years in the wild, and 20 years in captivity (Kushlan and Bildstein 1992).
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Diagnostic Description

No other North American bird of this size has both a long, slender, decurved, pink/scarlet bill and a white belly (bill of the much larger wood stork is yellow much thicker).

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Type Information

Type for Eudocimus albus
Catalog Number: USNM 525728
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): H. Bailey
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: Cape Sable, Monroe, Florida, United States, North America
  • Type: Bailey, H. H. April 1, 1930. Bailey Mus. Lib. Nat. Hist. Bull. 4.
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Type for Eudocimus albus
Catalog Number: USNM 525728
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Female;
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): H. Bailey
Year Collected: 1924
Locality: Cape Sable, Monroe, Florida, United States, North America
  • Type: Bailey, H. H. April 1, 1930. Bailey Mus. Lib. Nat. Hist. Bull. 4.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Barriers, marshes, spoil islands on the coast, and islands in inland lakes are the preferred nesting sites for the White Ibis. These sites are in interior and coastal wetlands, in environments ranging from southeastern mixed forest to outer coastal plain forest, savanna, prairie parkland, and prairie bushland. Feeding habitats include sedge marshes, cypress swamps, salt marshes, and mangrove swamps.

Terrestrial Biomes: savanna or grassland ; forest

Aquatic Biomes: coastal

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Comments: Various salt water and freshwater habitats: marshes, mangroves, lagoons, lakes, marsh prairie, pasture, coastal swamps (AOU 1983, Kushlan 1979). Often perches in trees. Nests in trees or shrubs near water, especially in wooded swamps; also on matted clumps of JUNCUS (Frederick 1987) or other marsh vegetation. May show fidelity to nest area despite chronic nest loss due to tidal washover. Typically nests with smaller EGRETTA herons (Frederick 1987).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Makes local seasonal movements along Gulf Coast.

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Trophic Strategy

Using its long decurved bill and long neck, the White Ibis probes the surface of its wetland habitat for aquatic crustaceans (such as crayfish and crabs) and insects. It washes the mud from its prey in the surrounding water, then swallows it with a quick, upward thrust of the neck and head. White Ibises tend to feed in large groups. They fly with this group to and from their feeding location.

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Comments: Eats mainly crustaceans, also fishes, frogs, small snakes, slugs, snails, insects; probes into mud with bill or picks up food from surface among mangroves, along edges of ponds, in marsh prairie, fields, and in shallow estuaries (Palmer 1962). In South Carolina, dependent of crayfish availability in wetlands (Bildstein et al. 1990).

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White ibis feed primarily on species of crustaceans (Kushlan and Bildstein 1992) from both saltmarsh and freshwater wetland habitats. They are tactile feeders that probe around soft bottom areas with their long bills in search of prawns, crayfish and fiddler crabs. Tactile foraging is somewhat more inefficient in capturing fish, so it is used rarely when foraging for fish (Kushlan 1979). Adult birds that are feeding chicks visit freshwater foraging sites more frequently than saltmarsh sites. However, once young have fledged, parental visits to saltmarsh feeding habitats double.Competitors: White ibises compete for food with other wading birds.Habitats: The white ibis has been described as a nomadic species, rather than a migratory species (Frederick et al. 1996). As such, it quickly colonizes wetlands having good food resources, and readily abandons areas where resources have become scarce. It utilizes both freshwater and estuarine wetlands such as mangrove and cypress swamps, bottomland hardwood, and marshes. In Florida studies, its preferred breeding habitat is in freshwater areas where winter and early spring water levels are low or receding (Smith and Collopy 1995).
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Associations

White ibises are highly gregarious and readily associate with other species of medium sized herons and egrets. They are known to nest in mixed flocks with cattle egrets (Kushlan and Bildstein 1992).
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

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Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

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Frederick et al. (1996) reported that the Florida Everglades population of white ibis is clearly in decline, with a more widespread overall decline in progress throughout the United States. Available records indicate there were approximately 125,000 breeding pairs in 1933; 170,000 breeding pairs in 1976; 51,000 pairs in 1991; and 43,000 pairs in 1992. Kushlan and Bildstein (1992) have suggested that these figures may not represent actual declines in population. Rather, they may indicate that range expansion of this species throughout the southeast, coupled with the nomadic lifestyle of the white ibis cause fluctuation in population numbers in any one area. These authors stress that population figures as a whole continue to be relatively high. One exception occurs in the Florida Everglades, where water management practices have altered the natural hydrologic regime of the system, causing a marked population decline (Kushlan and Bildstein 1992)(see Reproduction section below).Locomotion: White ibises walk at a rate of approximately 25 - 40 steps per minute. They fly with rapid wingbeats at the rate of 3.3 flaps per second. Flying is alternated with gliding for 60 - 100 m, sometimes as fast as 45 km/hour (Kushlan and Bildstein 1992).
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General Ecology

Highly gregarious. When not breeding, congregates at communal roosts; may move long distance between roost and feeding area (Hilty and Brown 1986).

Fish crow may prey on eggs but effect on ibis productivity was regarded as negligible in North Carolina (Shields and Parnell 1986).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Perception Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical

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Cyclicity

Comments: Forages during daylight (Powell 1987).

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Life Expectancy

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
196 months.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 27.6 years (captivity) Observations: These animals can live up to 27.6 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 1994).
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Reproduction

Pair formation in ibises tends to depend on the amount of rain, light, and available food rather than occurring at a set time every year. Nest building, however, tends to fall between May and early June. Colonies begin with the roost sites of males, who form a sort of daytime bachelor party. The females then come and build the nests nearby. Nests are built in live or dead woody plants, usually in branch crotches. On average, 2-3 eggs are laid. Both the male and female incubate, and the eggs hatch about 21 days after incubation begins. The nestlings are born with their eyes closed and cannot stand, preferring to sleep for the first week of life. They are easily overheated, so both parents make sure to keep them guarded from the sun with their wings. After about 40-50 days of care from the parents, the fledgling ibises first leave the colony. They do not leave permanently until they are at least 79% the adult mass, which takes about two years to achieve.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; oviparous

Average time to hatching: 22 days.

Average eggs per season: 3.

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Clutch size is 3-4 in the north, usually 2 in the south (Central and South America). Incubation lasts about 21- 23 days, by both sexes. Young leave nest at about three weeks, fly at about five weeks. Captive birds first bred at 2 years (Terres 1980, Palmer 1962). Largest colonies in coastal U.S. comprise about 5000-6200 birds on Atlantic coast (in Carolinas), 20,000 at Cedar Keys, Florida, and 60,000 just north of Lake Maurepas, Louisiana, on Gulf Coast (Spendelow and Patton 1988). In Florida, nesting success and high nesting numbers were associated with rapid water drying rate in spring (Frederick and Collopy 1989).

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White ibises are highly social breeders and nest in large mixed colonies numbering from hundreds to ten thousands of nests. They begin nesting in their third summers, and will nest yearly under optimal conditions. In Florida, nesting begins as early as mid-March and April (Smith and Collopy 1995; Smith 1997). Further to the south, in Costa Rica, nesting takes place between May and July (Leber 1980). Nest success is highly correlated to low and receding water levels in freshwater areas, as nestling are highly susceptible to salt stress. Between 2 - 5 eggs are laid per clutch, and 1 brood is raised per year. Renesting often occurs following early-season nest failure.White Ibises shift breeding locations in response to rainfall patterns, with breeding success shown to increase in years with high rainfall (Bildstein 1990). In south Florida, it has been observed that 35 times as many breeding birds are present in wet years than in dry years (Kushlan 1976). In dry years, clutch size is decreased, nests are more likely to be abandoned, and chicks are more likely to die from starvation (Bildstein et al. 1990). In Florida, the active management of water levels in wetland areas such as Lake Okeechobee and the Florida everglades may also contribute to nest success (Smith and Collopy 1995). It has been suggested that in order to enhance nest success and later fledgling success, water levels in managed wetlands should be maintained at low or receding levels throughout the late winter to early spring nesting season. Low water levels help to concentrate prey in small, shallow areas, thereby making it simpler for parent birds to feed nestlings. It also contributes to the foraging success of fledglings (Smith and Collopy 1995).Nest takeovers and nest parasitism are sometimes problems in ibis breeding colonies. A pair that is nesting, but without eggs will occasionally attack a nesting female with eggs and force her from her nest. If eggs are present, the intruding female will peck at eggs to destroy them, and then eject them from the nest. Nesting material is then rearranged and the intruding pair will begin copulation. The ejected pair will often return to the nest and chase off the intruders; however, in all cases where this behavior was observed, nest failure resulted (Frederick 1986). Conspecific egg dumping, or nest parasitism also occurs during nesting, where non-nesting females will deposit eggs into a nesting female's nest and leave the nesting female to raise chicks that are not her own (Kushlan and Bildstein 1992).White ibises from wild populations in Venezuela and Florida are known to hybridize with the scarlet ibis, Eudocimus ruber. Hybridization with the scarlet ibis also readily occurs in captivity (Ramo and Busto 1987).
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Growth

Eggs are incubated 21 - 23 days. Hatching is asynchronous and occurs over several days. The oldest chick quickly gains experience at food handling and aggressive behaviors toward its siblings, and thus grows at a faster rate than its nestmates. Nestling mortality is greatest in the first 20 days of life (Kushlan and Bildstein 1992).At hatching, the skin, legs and feet of chicks are flesh colored. Blue-gray down covers the body by the third day, with black down covering the head and neck. Feathers begin to emerge around day 5. The eyes open after 1 - 3 days, with chicks becoming fully alert by day 9. Chicks are mobile at 8 days of age, and by day 15 often begin leaving the nest to join crèches (social groups) of similarly aged birds. Chicks in crèches continue to be fed by adults. Fledging occurs at 28 - 35 days.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Eudocimus albus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNTTGGCGCATGAGCTGGTATAGTTGGAACTGCCCTTAGCTTACTTATCCGCGCAGAACTAGGTCAACCAGGAACACTCCTGGGAGACGACCAAATCTACAATGTAATCGTCACTGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTCATACCAATCATGATTGGCGGATTTGGCAACTGACTAGTGCCCCTTATAATCGGTGCCCCCGACATAGCCTTTCCCCGCATAAACAATATAAGCTTCTGACTACTACCTCCATCCTTCCTACTCCTTCTAGCCTCCTCCACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGCAGGCACAGGATGAACTGTATACCCACCTCTAGCTGGCAACCTCGCCCATGCTGGAGCCTCAGTAGACCTAGCCATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTAGCAGGGGTATCTTCCATTCTAGGAGCTATTAACTTCATCACAACTGCCATTAACATAAAACCTCCAGCCCTCTCACAATATCAAACACCACTATTCGTTTGATCCGTCCTAATCACTGCCGTTTTACTACTACTCTCTCTACCAGTCCTCGCTGCCGGCATCACCATGCTGCTAACAGATCGAAACCTGAACACTACATTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGAGGAGATNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eudocimus albus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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