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Introduction

Introduction:

Tortricoidea, comprised of the single family Tortricidae, are second in terms of species richness only to Gelechioidea among the major microlepidopteran lineages, with just over 9,100 described species (Brown 2005). Several groups within Tortricidae have been considered distinct families by one or more authors over the last century, including Olethreutinae, Chlidanotinae, Cochylini (Phaloniidae), Sparganothini, Ceracini, and others. However, it is now generally accepted that these groups represent subordinate taxa within the family (Horak 1999). Under current concepts, the family is divided into three subfamilies - Chlidanotinae, Tortricinae, and Olethreutinae - into which 22 currently recognized tribes are arranged (Horak 1999).Many tortricids are important pests of agricultural, forest, and ornamental plants. And some, such as the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.)), are among the most well studied insects on the planet because of their considerable economic impact. The common name ??tortricideae??? has been applied to the family owing to the larval habit of shelter-building by folding or rolling leaves of the food plant, but the larvae of tortricids employ a wide range of feeding strategies, including gall-inducing, stem- and root-boring, fruit-boring, seed-predating, and flower-feeding. Some of the more unusual feeding modes include leaf litter-feeding (e.g., Epitymbiini), feeding as inquilines in the galls of other insects (e.g., Cydia and Andrioplecta), and predators of coccids (e.g., Accra, Pammene, and Andrioplecta).

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