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Range DescriptionThis speciesis restricted to a small stretch of the north coast of Venezuela, where it is known from, at most, nine localities - and only three in recent years - in east Falcn, north Carabobo and Aragua. Recent survey work in 2010 and 2012 found the species in Parque Nacional Henri Pittier (Aragua), Parque Nacional San Esteban (Carabobo), Parque Nacional Morrocoy (Falcn) and Refugio de Fauna Silvestre de Cuare (Falcn) (A. Rodrguez-Ferraro in litt. 2013).
It is extremely rare and very poorly known, but was probably at least locally common when discovered: 11 specimens were collected at Puerto Cabello/San Esteban in 1944-1945, and 11 at Tucacas in May 1951. It persists at Tucacas where at least six pairs were found in June 1999 (R. S. Ridgely in litt. 1999) and where it was again recorded in 2010 and 2012 (A. Rodrguez-Ferraroin litt. 2013)and on the Morrocoy Peninsula where there have been regular sightings since 1999 (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011,A. Rodrguez-Ferraroin litt. 2013). The only other records for Falcn since the 1950s are an unconfirmed record at Cuare Faunal Refuge in 1986 and sightings at the same location in 2010 and 2012 (A. Rodrguez-Ferraroin litt. 2013). In Carabobo, there are apparently recent sightings from Patanemo (Ascanio et al. 2008,A. Rodrguez-Ferraroin litt. 2013), 10 km east of Puerto Cabello. In Aragua, recent records are of a pair at Playa de Cata, 15 km east of La Cinaga, in April 1991 (A. Fernndez Badillo in litt. 1992) (however no suitable habitat occurs at this location [Taylor et al. 2014]), and a pair at Henri Pittier National Park in 1991 and 1993 (A. Fernandez Badillo per A. Lentino in litt. 1994) and again in 2010 and 2012 where approximately five pairs were recorded in both years (A. Rodrguez-Ferraro in litt. 2013). An observation of a bird at Las Peonias Lagoon near Maracaibo, Zulia in August 2000 (J. Colve, cited in World Birdwatch 2001. 23(2):5) would be a significant range extension requiring verification.