Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: RESIDENT: northern California south, west of deserts and Sierra Nevada, to northwestern Baja California; accidental or casual in southern Oregon (may breed), southeastern California (Salton Sea) and Arizona (Phoenix) (AOU 1983).

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Range

Chaparral and oak woodlands of n California to nw Baja.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 19 cm

Weight: 38 grams

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Type Information

Type for Picoides nuttallii
Catalog Number: USNM A3337
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Subadult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): W. Gambel
Year Collected: 1841
Locality: Los Angeles, Near Pueblo De Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States, North America
  • Type: Gambel. (Not Earlier Than April 25) 1843. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 1: 259.
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Type for Picoides nuttallii
Catalog Number: USNM A3337
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Subadult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): W. Gambel
Year Collected: 1841
Locality: Los Angeles, Near Pueblo De Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States, North America
  • Type: Gambel. (Not Earlier Than April 25) 1843. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 1: 259.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Oak forest and woodland, chaparral and riparian (especially willow-cottonwood) woodland (AOU 1983). In the Sierra Nevada foothills, extensively uses QUERCUS WISLIZENII and PINUS SABINIANA outside the breeding season; extensively uses QUERCUS DOUGLASII during the breeding season (Block 1991). Both sexes dig out a cavity in a tree, 1-18 m above ground.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Typically probes in crevices and under bark for insects (eggs, larvae, and adults). Forages by lightly pecking, probing, and gleaning prey from branches less than 30 cm in diameter (Block 1991). Also eats cottonwood buds and some berries. Sometimes drills for insects.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Breeding begins in late March (Harrison 1978). Both sexes incubate 4-5, sometimes 3-6, eggs for about 14 days. Young are tended by both adults.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Picoides nuttallii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACCGATGACTATTCTCCACCAACCACAAAGACATTGGCACCTTATATCTTATCTTCGGAGCATGAGCTGGCATAATCGGCACAGCCCTTAGCCTCCTCATCCGGGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCTGGTACCCTCCTTGGCGAC---GACCAAATCTATAACGTCATCGTCACTGCCCATGCATTCGTAATAATCTTCTTCATAGTAATACCCATTATAATCGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTTGTACCTCTCATAATCGGAGCCCCCGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCCCCATCATTCCTCCTCCTCCTAGCCTCATCTACAGTAGAAGCAGGAGCTGGGACAGGATGAACCGNCTACCCACCCCTCGCCGGCAACTTAGCCCACGCAGGAGCCTCAGTAGACCTAGCCATCTTCTCACTCCATTTAGCAGGTATCTCATCAATCCTGGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCCATTAACATGAAGCCCCCAGCCATCTNACAGTATCAAACTCCCCTATTCGGCTGATCCGNCCTCATNACCGGCGNTCTCCTACTNCTATNNNTTTCCGGACTCGCCGNTGGCATTACAATACTNCTTACAGACCGGAACCTAANCNCCNCATTCTTCGATCCCGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCCNTCCTTTACCAANNCCTNTTCNGATTNTTNGGNCACCNTGAAGCNTACATCCNAATTNTCCCAGGATTTGGCATTATNTCCNNCGNNGNANCGNACTNNNCCNNTAAAAAGGGACCNTTTGGNTNCNTAGGCNTAGNNNGNNCCNNGCTNTCCATNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Picoides nuttallii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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