Overview

Comprehensive Description

Although individuals from this species can exist on their own they tend to form chains (2, 4 or 8 individuals long). Cells are armoured, semicircular (longer in width than length), anterio-posteriorly compressed, with a rounded apex and a slightly concave antapex. The apical pore plate (po) houses the characteristic fishhook shaped foramen. A. catenalla has yellow green to orange-brown chloroplasts and a U-shaped nucleus (Whedon & Kofoid 1936). Forms a resting cyst as part of it?s lifecycle.
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Yoshimatsu, S. (1981). Sexual reproduction of Protogonyaulax catenella in culture I. Heterothallism. Bull. Plank. Soc. Jpn. 28: 131-139.
  • Fukuyo, Y., K. Yoshida and H. Inoue (1985). Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 27-32.
  • Ogata, T. & Kodama, M. (1986). Ichthyotoxicity found in cultured media of Protogonyaulax spp. Mar. Biol. 92: 31-34.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. (1991). Aquaculturists Guide to Harmful Australian Microalgae. Fishing Industry Training Board of Tasmania/CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Hobart, 111 pp.
  • Meksumpun, S., Montani, S. & Uematsu, M.(1994). Elemental components of cyst walls of three marine phytoflagellates, Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae), Alexandrium catenella adn Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 33: 275-280.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo and J. Larsen (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Penna, E. Garcés, M. Vila , M. G. Giacobbe, S. Fraga, A. Lugliè, I. Bravo, E. Bertozzini and C. Vernesi (2005). Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expanding in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology 148: 13?23.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© University of Liverpool

Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Exists in most of the earths temperate seas including the Mediterranean were it?s numbers are rapidly increasing (Penna et al. 2005)
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Yoshimatsu, S. (1981). Sexual reproduction of Protogonyaulax catenella in culture I. Heterothallism. Bull. Plank. Soc. Jpn. 28: 131-139.
  • Fukuyo, Y., K. Yoshida and H. Inoue (1985). Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 27-32.
  • Ogata, T. & Kodama, M. (1986). Ichthyotoxicity found in cultured media of Protogonyaulax spp. Mar. Biol. 92: 31-34.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. (1991). Aquaculturists Guide to Harmful Australian Microalgae. Fishing Industry Training Board of Tasmania/CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Hobart, 111 pp.
  • Meksumpun, S., Montani, S. & Uematsu, M.(1994). Elemental components of cyst walls of three marine phytoflagellates, Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae), Alexandrium catenella adn Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 33: 275-280.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo and J. Larsen (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Penna, E. Garcés, M. Vila , M. G. Giacobbe, S. Fraga, A. Lugliè, I. Bravo, E. Bertozzini and C. Vernesi (2005). Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expanding in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology 148: 13?23.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© University of Liverpool

Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 2 - 2
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Alexandrium Catenella

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Alexandrium Catenella

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data: Alexandrium catenella

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Alexandrium catenella

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Management

Toxicity

Produces PSPs, c1-c4, saxitoxins, gonyautoxins (Fukuyo et al. 1985; Taylor et al. 1995) and possibly even icthyotoxins (Ogata & Kodama 1986).
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Yoshimatsu, S. (1981). Sexual reproduction of Protogonyaulax catenella in culture I. Heterothallism. Bull. Plank. Soc. Jpn. 28: 131-139.
  • Fukuyo, Y., K. Yoshida and H. Inoue (1985). Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White and D.G. Baden (eds), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 27-32.
  • Ogata, T. & Kodama, M. (1986). Ichthyotoxicity found in cultured media of Protogonyaulax spp. Mar. Biol. 92: 31-34.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. (1991). Aquaculturists Guide to Harmful Australian Microalgae. Fishing Industry Training Board of Tasmania/CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Hobart, 111 pp.
  • Meksumpun, S., Montani, S. & Uematsu, M.(1994). Elemental components of cyst walls of three marine phytoflagellates, Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae), Alexandrium catenella adn Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 33: 275-280.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo and J. Larsen (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Penna, E. Garcés, M. Vila , M. G. Giacobbe, S. Fraga, A. Lugliè, I. Bravo, E. Bertozzini and C. Vernesi (2005). Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expanding in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology 148: 13?23.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© University of Liverpool

Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!