Articles on this page are available in 2 other languages: Arabic (14), Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Taxon Biology

Macrocystis pyrifera plants consist of a holdfast, which anchors the plant to the substrate, bundles of fronds analogous to the branches and leaves of a land plant, and reproductive structures called sporophylls located just above the holdfast (Tegner et al. 1996). Like most kelp species, M, pyrifera is perennial. It may exceed 45 m in length and the holdfasts of old plants are conical and may reach a meter in height (Abbot and Hollenberg 1976). Macrocystis pyrifera occurs in extensive stands (kelp forests) throughout its range, providing the basis for biologically diverse ecological communities.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Introduction

Macrocystis pyrifera is the largest marine alga (seaweed) in the world with its fronds sometimes exceeding 45m in length - it is sometimes referred to as the Sequoia of the sea.The fronds are capable of growing to 45m in one season - the world’s fastest linear growth.This kelp has root-like holdfasts, long slender stalks with leaf-like fronds buoyed by small gas-filled bladders - on the surface these spread out to form a dense subsurface canopy. It forms dense submarine ‘forests’ on hard substrata or occasionally on coarse sand at depths less than 40m. These forests are some of the most productive communities on earth with much of the annual production exported as large floating rafts.Macrocystis is a commercially important seaweed. The largest mechanical harvesting took place off the coast of southern California, where 100,000 to 170,000 wet tons were harvested annually for alginate extraction and abalone feed.The harvesting for alginates ceased in 2005, but the kelp is still harvested as feed for abalone aquaculture. Commercial operations took place in several countries, including Chile and Tasmania, but have now ceased as they are no longer economically viable.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Partner Web Site: Natural History Museum

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Macrocystis is the most widely distributed kelp genus in the world, with an amphitropical distribution that spans the west coasts of North and South America and also includes Argentina, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and most of the sub-Antarctic islands (Neushul 1971, cited in Hernandez-Carmona et al. 2006). Macrocystis pyrifera forms dense forests in many parts of the world, including parts of the northeast Pacific (but not north of San Francisco, California), the southern shores of South America, many Southern Ocean islands, and isolated areas of South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand (Dayton 1985).

According to Abbot and Hollenberg (1976), M. pyrifera occurs on the west coast of North America from Alaska to Baja California.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Nearly all kelp forests occur on hard substrata, an exception being Macrocystis pyrifera in some protected fjords in Chile and New Zealand (Dayton 1985). Abbot and Hollenberg (1976) describe the habitat of this species as "on rocky substrata or occasionally anchoring in coarse sand, subtidal (6-20 (80) m)"

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Hernandez-Carmona et al. (2006) reviewed the literature on long-distance dispersal of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Long-distance dispersal is believed to occur via drifting sporophytes. Drifting M. pyrifera sporophytes (kelp rafts) are created following sporophyte detachment from benthic substrates; in California, this occurs primarily during the winter months (November–February). Kept afloat by numerous pneumatocysts (gas-filled bladders), M. pyrifera sporophytes may remain alive and adrift for more than 100 days. Zoospore germination rates remain fairly high even after several months of floating. Based on their investigation of the rate of fertility decline while afloat, Hernandez-Carmona et al. (2006) conclude that the reproductive longevity of drifting M. pyrifera sporophytes is long enough to support effective long-distance dispersal of over 1000 km. Drifter reproductive viability is maintained at relatively high levels so long as enough biomass is present to promote the production of spore-bearing sori.

Kelp rafts disperse kelp, but they may also disperse an enormous diversity of kelp forest fauna among isolated kelp forests. Some pelagic species with larval dispersal may even complete a cycle of larval settlement, growth, and reproduction before kelp rafts sink or wash ashore (Hobday 2000).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Numerous species of small invertebrates and even fish can be found living in the holdfasts of Macrocystis pyrifera. In a study in M. pyrifera forests around Navarino Island, Chile, Ojeda and Santelices (1984) found 42 species of invertebrates and 1 fish living in kelp holdfasts. Five invertebrate phyla were represented, but especially prominent were crustaceans (especially decapods), echinoderms, and molluscs. The authors note that in a similar study in California, over 100 invertebrate taxa, mostly amphipods, polychaetes, and isopods, were found dwelling in M. pyrifera holdfasts (Ghelardi 1971, cited in Ojeda and Santelices 1984).

In giant kelp forests, shade from the canopy of M. pyrifera negatively affects understory algae. Because these algae compete for space with sessile (i.e., stationary) invertebrates, the shade from the giant kelp indirectly benefits the sessile invertebrates. In a study off San Clemente, California (USA), this indirect positive effect turned out to be quite substantial (Arkema et al. 2009).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known predators

Macrocystis pyrifera is prey of:
Astraea undosa
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
Diopatra ornata

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Southern California (Marine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. J. Rosenthal, W. D. Clarke, P. K. Dayton, Ecology and natural history of a stand of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, off Del Mar, California. Fish. Bull. (Dublin) 72(3):670-684, from p. 683 (1974).
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Ecology

Kelp forests experience irregular cycles of growth and deforestation. The biotic (biological) and abiotic (physical) factors driving these changes, both "natural" and anthropogenic, have been the subject of much study by ecologists over many decades and in several parts of the world (see, e.g., Dayton et al. 1998). Steneck et al. (2002) review the major factors controlling the development and disappearance of kelp forests, including M. pyrifera forests. They find that between about 40 and 60 degrees north in both hemispheres, well developed kelp forests are most threatened by herbivory, usually by sea urchins. Overfishing and loss of apex vertebrate predators such as sea otters have repeatedly led to increased herbivore (e.g., urchin) populations and consequently deforestation of kelp forests. In southern California, however, home to extensive forests of M. pyrifera, widespread deforestation is rare. Steneck et al. suggest that this relative stability may result from functional redundancies among both predators and herbivores (in contrast to less species-rich regions to the north).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution ecology

Macrocystis pyrifera forms dense forests in many parts of the world, including the cooler waters of the northeast Pacific (Alaska to Baja, California), the southern shores of South America, many Southern Ocean islands, and isolated areas of South Africa, southern Australia, and New Zealand.Its distribution is greatly influenced by physical factors and it usually grows in the following conditions:
  • clean and clear coastal waters
  • temperature less than 20ºC
  • nutrient concentration high
  • water motion moderate
Its geographical limits are usually governed by the highest summer sea surface temperature.Well-developed kelp forests are threatened by herbivorous grazers such as sea urchins, which can switch from grazing on detritus and drift weed to destructively grazing Macrocystis, leading to deforestation. Various factors are thought to contribute to the sea-urchins’ switch in diet including:
  • extensive recruitment of grazers
  • low amount of drift algae
  • over-fishing
  • loss of urchin predators
Several hypotheses concerning the interactions between this kelp, sea urchins and El Niño events have been proposed to explain the extreme disruption of kelp forest communities in the past.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Partner Web Site: Natural History Museum

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Behaviour

The three-dimensional structure and high productivity of the Macrocystis forests mean they play an important ecological role by providing food and habitat for an enormous number and diversity of animals, including fish and invertebrate animals.Some animals live on the kelp, including:
  • crustaceans (especially decapods)
  • starfish (seastars)
  • echinoderms
  • mollusks
  • bryozoans
  • other species in the water column that may be very closely associated with the kelp
The holdfast alone may contain over 150 species and the fronds more than 100 invertebrate animal species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Partner Web Site: Natural History Museum

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Cycle

The life history of Macrocystis pyrifera involves a complex alternation of generations between large diploid (spore-producing) sporophytes and microscopic haploid (gamete-producing) gametophytes. Meiosis within the sporangium of the diploid sporophyte produces haploid microscopic flagellated zoospores, which settle and germinate into male or female haploid gametophytes. These gameteophytes produce male and female gametes, which combine via fertilization to form diploid sporophytes which then grow from microscopic to macroscopic size (Dayton 1985; Ladah and Zertuche-Gonzalez 2007). Based on studies of M. pyrifera in La Jolla, California (USA), Neushul (1963) estimated the minimum time required to complete the sexual cycle to be 12 to 14 months.

Macrocystis pyrifera produces spores year round, but with seasonal peaks (Reed et al. 1997).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Expectancy

In a study near San Diego, California (USA), maximum lifespan recorded for a Macrocystis pyrifera plant was about five years (Dayton et al. 1992).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Macrocystis pyrifera

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

Conservation

One of the greatest threats to the conservation status of well-developed Macrocystis forests is herbivory. For example, a large increase in sea urchin numbers off the Californian coast led to them grazing the Macrocystis, and resulted in complete destruction of the beds. Otters - which are voracious urchin eaters - are important for preserving these forests.Sludge, silt or sewage is known to destroy the microscopic stage of Macrocystis.Macrocystis forest communities are of great aesthetic value and support both commercial fishing operations and recreational activities especially scuba diving.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Partner Web Site: Natural History Museum

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Risk Statement

Dayton et al. (1998) and Steneck et al. (2002) review (and speculate about) how human activities (hunting marine mammals, harvesting urchins, polluting the seas, etc.) from prehistoric times to the present have likely impacted the dynamics of kelp forests, including M. pyrifera forests, in several geographic regions.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Shapiro, Leo

Source: EOL Rapid Response Team

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Macrocystis pyrifera

Macrocystis pyrifera, commonly known as giant kelp or giant bladder kelp, is a species of kelp (large brown algae), and one of four species in the genus Macrocystis. Giant kelp is common along the coast of the eastern Pacific Ocean, from Baja California north to southeast Alaska, and is also found in the southern oceans near South America, South Africa, and Australia. Individual algae may grow to more than 45 metres (148 ft) long at a rate of as much as 2 feet (61 cm) per day. Giant kelp grows in dense stands known as kelp forests, which are home to many marine animals that depend on the algae for food or shelter. Humans harvest kelp for it is rich in iodine, potassium, and other minerals, but the primary product obtained from giant kelp is alginate.

Description[edit]

M.pyrifera is the largest of all algae. The stage of the life cycle that is usually seen is the sporophyte, which is perennial and individuals persist for many years.The giant kelp receives its name from its incredible size. Individuals may grow to up to 50 metres (160 ft) long.[2] The stalks arise from a holdfast and branch three or four times from near the base. Blades develop at irregular intervals along the stipe, with a single pneumatocyst (gas bladder) at the base of each blade.[3]

A related and similar-looking, but smaller species, M.integrifolia, grows to only to 6 metres (20 ft) long. It is found on intertidal rocks or shallow subtidal rocks along the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia to California) and South America.[4][5]

Growth[edit]

M.pyrifera is one of the fastest-growing organisms on Earth.[6][7] They can grow at a rate of 0.6 metres (2 ft) a day to reach over 45 metres (148 ft) long in one growing season.[4][8][9]

Juvenile giant kelp grow directly upon their parent female gametophyte. To establish itself, a young kelp produces one or two primary blades, and begins a rudimentary holdfast, which serves to anchor the plant to the rocky bottom. As the kelp grows, additional blades develop from the growing tip, while the holdfast enlarges and may entirely cover the rock to which it is attached.

Growth occurs with lengthening of the stipe (central stalk), and splitting of the blades. At the growing tip is a single blade, at the base of which develop small gas bladders along one side. As the bladders and stipe grow, small tears develop in the attached blade. Once the tears have completed, each bladder supports a single separate blade along the stipe, with the bladders and their blades attached at irregular intervals.[10][11]

Ecology[edit]

M.pyrifera is found in North America (Alaska to California), South America, South Africa, New Zealand, and southern Australia.[12] It thrives in cooler waters where the ocean water temperature remains below 70 °F (21 °C).[9]

Where the bottom is rocky and affords places for it to anchor, giant kelp forms extensive kelp beds with large "floating canopies".[4] When present in large numbers, giant kelp forms kelp forests that are home to many marine species who depend upon the kelp directly for food and shelter, or indirectly as a hunting ground for prey. Both the large size of the kelp and the large number of individuals significantly alter the availability of light, the flow of ocean currents, and the chemistry of the ocean water in the area where they grow.[13]

In high-density populations, giant kelp individuals compete with other individuals of the species for space and resources. Giant kelp may also compete with Pterygophora californica in these circumstances.[14][15]

Where surface waters are poor in nutrients, nitrogen in the form of amino acids is translocated up the stipe through sieve elements that very much resemble the phloem of vascular plants.[16][17] Translocation of nutrients along the stipe may be as rapid as 60 centimetres (24 in) per hour.[11] Most translocation occurs to move carbon-rich photosynthate, and typically transfers material from mature regions to actively growing regions where the machinery of photosynthesis is not yet fully in place. Translocation also moves nutrients downward from light-exposed surface fronds to sporophylls (reproductive fronds) at the base of the kelp, where there is little light and thus little photosynthesis to produce food.

Aquaculture[edit]

M.pyrifera has been utilized for many years as a food source;[18][19] it also contains many compounds such as iodine, potassium, other minerals vitamins and carbohydrates and thus has also used as a dietary supplement.[20][21] In the beginning of the 20th century California kelp beds were harvested as a source for soda ash.[18][22][23] With commercial interest increasing significantly during the 1970s and the 1980s this was primarily due to the production of alginates, and also for biomass production for animal feed due to the energy crisis during that period.[22][23][24] However the commercial production for M.pyrifera never became realty. With the end of the energy crisis and the decline in prices of alginates, the research into farming Macrocystis also declined.[19]

The demand for M.pyrifera is increasing due to the newfound uses of these plants such as fertilizers, cultivation for bioremediation purposes, abalone and sea urchin feed.[19][25] There is current research going into utilizing M.pyrifera as feed for other aquaculture species such as shrimps.[25][26] Recently, M.pyrifera has been examined as a possible feedstock for conversion into ethanol for biofuel use.[27]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Agardh 1820
  2. ^ Hoek et al. 1995, p. 201
  3. ^ Kain 1991
  4. ^ a b c Abbott & Hollenberg 1976
  5. ^ AlgaeBase: Species: Macrocystis integrifolia
  6. ^ Fenner, Bob The Brown Algae
  7. ^ White & Plaskett 1982, page 8
  8. ^ Cribb 1953
  9. ^ a b Davis 1991, p. 21
  10. ^ Mondragon & Mondragon 2003
  11. ^ a b Prescott 1968, pp.226-227
  12. ^ AlgaeBase: Species: Macrocystis pyrifera
  13. ^ Lobban & Harrison, p. 158
  14. ^ Reed 1990
  15. ^ Reed et al. 1991
  16. ^ Lobban & Harrison, pp. 151-153
  17. ^ Hoek et al. 1995, p. 204
  18. ^ a b Abbott 1996
  19. ^ a b c Gutierrez et al. 2006
  20. ^ Bushing 2000
  21. ^ Connor 1989, p. 58
  22. ^ a b Neushul 1987
  23. ^ a b Druehl et al. 1988
  24. ^ Gerard 1987
  25. ^ a b Buschmann et al. 2006
  26. ^ Cruz et al. 2009
  27. ^ Wargacki et al. 2012

References[edit]

  • Abbott, I A & G J Hollenberg. (1976) Marine Algae of California. California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0867-3
  • Abbott, I. A. (1996). Ethnobotany of seaweeds: clues to uses of seaweeds. Hydrobiologia, 326-327(1), 15-20.
  • Agardh, C A. (1820) Species algarum rite cognitae, cum synonymis, differentiis specificis et descriptionibus succinctis. Vol. 1, Part 1, pp. [i-iv], [1]-168. Lund: Berling.
  • Buschmann, A., Varela, D., Hernández-González, M., & Huovinen, P. (2008). Opportunities and challenges for the development of an integrated seaweed-based aquaculture activity in Chile: determining the physiological capabilities of Macrocystis and Gracilaria as biofilters. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20(5), 571-577.
  • Buschmann, A. H., Hernández-González, M. C., Astudillo, C., Fuente, L. d. l., Gutierrez, A., & Aroca, G. (2005). Seaweed cultivation, product development and integrated aquaculture studies in Chile. World Aquaculture, 36(3), 51-53.
  • Bushing, William W (2000) Giant Bladder Kelp .
  • Druehl LD, Baird R, Lindwall A, Lloyd KE, Pakula S (1988) Longline cultivation of some Laminareaceae in British Columbia. Aquacult. Fish Management 19, 253–263.
  • Chaoyuan, W., & Guangheng, L. (1987). Progress in the genetics and breeding of economic seaweeds in China. Hydrobiologia, 151-152(1), 57-61.
  • Connor, Judith & Charles Baxter. (1989) Kelp Forests. Monterey, California: Monterey Bay Aquarium. ISBN 1-878244-01-9
  • Cribb, A B. (1953) Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) Ag. in Tasmanian waters Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 5 (1):1-34.
  • Cruz-SuÁRez, L., Tapia-Salazar, M., Nieto-LÓPez, M., Guajardo-Barbosa, C., & Ricque-Marie, D. (2009). Comparison of Ulva clathrata and the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Ascophyllum nodosum as ingredients in shrimp feeds. Aquaculture Nutrition, 15(4), 421-430.
  • Davis, Chuck. (1991) California Reefs. San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-87701-787-5
  • Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics. (2007). Retrieved from ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/i1013t/i1013t.pdf
  • Gutierrez, A., Correa, T., Muñoz, V., Santibañez, A., Marcos, R., Cáceres, C., et al. (2006). Farming of the Giant Kelp Macrocystis Pyrifera in Southern Chile for Development of Novel Food Products. Journal of Applied Phycology, 18(3), 259-267.
  • Hoek, C van den; D G Mann & H M Jahns. (1995) Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  • Huisman, J M (2000) Marine Plants of Australia. University of Western Australia Press. ISBN 1-876268-33-6
  • Kain, J M (1991) Culivation of attached seaweeds in Guiry, M D & G Blunden (1991) Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. John Wiley and Sons.
  • Lobban, C S & P J Harrison. (1994) Seaweed Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40334-0
  • Macchiavello, J., Araya, E., & Bulboa, C. Production of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales;Phaeophyceae) in northern Chile on spore-based culture. Journal of Applied Phycology, 1-7.
  • Mariculture of Seaweeds. (2010). Retrieved from http://aquanic.org/species/documents/6_Algae_3__Culturing.pdf
  • Mondragon, Jennifer & Jeff Mondragon. (2003) Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Monterey, California: Sea Challengers. ISBN 0-930118-29-4
  • Neushul M (1987) Energy from marine biomass: The historicalrecord. In: Bird KT, Benson PH (eds), Seaweed Cultivation for Renewable Resources, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 1–37.
  • North, W J, G A Jackson, & S L Manley. (1986) "Macrocystis and its environment, knowns and unknowns." Aquatic Biology 26:9-26.
  • Prescott, G W. (1968) The Algae: A Review. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Reed, D C. (1990) "The effects of variable settlement and early competition on patterns of kelp recruitment." Ecology 71:776-787.
  • Reed, D C, M Neushul, & A W Ebeling. (1991) "Role of settlement density on gametophyte growth and reproduction in the kelps Pterygophora californica and Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae)." Journal of Phycology 27:361-366.
  • Simenstad, C.A., Estes, J.A. and Kenyon, K.W., 1978. Aleuts, sea otters, and alternatestable state communities. Science, 200: 403-411.
  • Wargacki, A.J., Leonard, E., Win, M.N., Regitsky, D.D., Santos, C.N.S., et al. (2012). An engineered microbial platform for direct biofuel production from brown macroalgae. Science, 335(1), 308-313.
  • Westermeier, R., Patiño, D., Piel, M. I., Maier, I., & Mueller, D. G. (2006). A new approach to kelp mariculture in Chile: production of free-floating sporophyte seedlings from gametophyte cultures of Lessonia trabeculata and Macrocystis pyrifera. Aquaculture Research, 37(2), 164-171.
  • Westermeier, R., Patiño, D., & Müller, D. G. (2007). Sexual compatibility and hybrid formation between the giant kelp species Macrocystis pyrifera and M. integrifoliat (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) in Chile. Journal of Applied Phycology, 19(3), 215-221.
  • White, L P & L G Plaskett, (1982) Biomass as Fuel. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-746980-X

Further reading[edit]

  • Connor, Judith & Charles Baxter. (1989) Kelp Forests. Monterey, California: Monterey Bay Aquarium. ISBN 1-878244-01-9
  • Davis, Chuck. (1991) California Reefs. San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-87701-787-5
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!