Overview

Comprehensive Description

Cells are squarish in outline and are strongly dorso-ventrally flattened. The girdle is not or only slightly displaced (and if displaced is descending)
  • Brown, AFM., Dortch, Q., Dolah, FMV., Leighfield, TA., Morrison, W., Thessen, AE., Steidinger, K., Richardson, B., Moncreiff, CA.& Pennock, JR. 2006. Effect of salinity on the distribution, growth, and toxicity of Karenia spp. Harmful Algae. 2: 199-212.
  • Magana, HA., & Villareal, TA. 2006. The effect of environemtnal factors on the growth rate of Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen and Moestrup. Harmful Algae. 2: 192-198.
  • Taylor, FJR., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. YCembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Haywood, A J., Steidinger, K A., Truby, EW., Bergquist, PR., Bergquist, PL., Adamson, J., Mackenzie, L. 2004. Comparative morphology and molecular phlogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. J.Phycol. 40(1): 165-179.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Distribution

K. brevis is typical of warm temperate to tropical waters.
  • Brown, AFM., Dortch, Q., Dolah, FMV., Leighfield, TA., Morrison, W., Thessen, AE., Steidinger, K., Richardson, B., Moncreiff, CA.& Pennock, JR. 2006. Effect of salinity on the distribution, growth, and toxicity of Karenia spp. Harmful Algae. 2: 199-212.
  • Magana, HA., & Villareal, TA. 2006. The effect of environemtnal factors on the growth rate of Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen and Moestrup. Harmful Algae. 2: 192-198.
  • Taylor, FJR., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. YCembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Haywood, A J., Steidinger, K A., Truby, EW., Bergquist, PR., Bergquist, PL., Adamson, J., Mackenzie, L. 2004. Comparative morphology and molecular phlogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. J.Phycol. 40(1): 165-179.
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© University of Liverpool

Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for Karenia brevis (C.C. Davis) Hansen & Moestrup in Daugbjerg et al.
Catalog Number: US 154918
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. Davis
Year Collected: 1947
Locality: Pine Island Sound, 1 mile south of Useppa Island., Lee County, Florida, United States, North America
Microhabitat: In bright yellow water
  • Isotype: Davis, C. C. 1948. Bot. Gaz. 109 (3): 358, figs. 1, 2.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 20 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 36 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 20 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 200
  Temperature range (°C): 14.476 - 19.893
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.238 - 2.578
  Salinity (PPS): 38.453 - 38.961
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.993 - 5.576
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.072 - 0.167
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.127 - 2.767

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 200

Temperature range (°C): 14.476 - 19.893

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.238 - 2.578

Salinity (PPS): 38.453 - 38.961

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.993 - 5.576

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.072 - 0.167

Silicate (umol/l): 1.127 - 2.767
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Karenia brevis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Karenia brevis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Management

Toxicity

Karenia brevis uses Brevetoxins and derivatives. Some of the associated effects of these toxins are Neurotoxic Shellfish Posioning (NSP) and fish kills.
  • Brown, AFM., Dortch, Q., Dolah, FMV., Leighfield, TA., Morrison, W., Thessen, AE., Steidinger, K., Richardson, B., Moncreiff, CA.& Pennock, JR. 2006. Effect of salinity on the distribution, growth, and toxicity of Karenia spp. Harmful Algae. 2: 199-212.
  • Magana, HA., & Villareal, TA. 2006. The effect of environemtnal factors on the growth rate of Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen and Moestrup. Harmful Algae. 2: 192-198.
  • Taylor, FJR., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. YCembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Haywood, A J., Steidinger, K A., Truby, EW., Bergquist, PR., Bergquist, PL., Adamson, J., Mackenzie, L. 2004. Comparative morphology and molecular phlogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. J.Phycol. 40(1): 165-179.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Wikipedia

Karenia brevis

Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve and Ptychodiscus brevis) is a marine dinoflagellate common in Gulf of Mexico waters, and is the organism responsible for Florida red tide, as well as red tide in Texas.[1]

Description[edit]

K. brevis is a microscopic, single-celled, photosynthetic organism that can "bloom" (see algal bloom) frequently along Florida coastal waters. Each cell has two flagella that allow it to move through the water in a spinning motion. K. brevis naturally produces a suite of potent neurotoxins collectively called brevetoxins, which cause gastrointestinal and neurological problems in other organisms and are responsible for large die-offs of marine organisms and seabirds.[2] K. brevis is unarmored, and does not contain peridinin. Cells are between 20 and 40 μm in diameter.

Ecology and distribution[edit]

In its normal environment, K. brevis will move in the direction of greater light[3] and against the direction of gravity,[4] which will tend to keep the organism at the surface of whatever body of water it is suspend within. Cells are thought to require photosynthesis to obtain nutrition.[5] Its swimming speed is about one metre per hour.[6] K. brevis is the causative agent of Red Tide, when K. brevis has grown to very high concentrations and the water can take on a reddish or pinkish coloration. The region around southwest Florida is one of the major hotspots for red tide blooms. Red Tide outbreaks have been known to occur since the Spanish explorers of the 15th century, although not nearly as common, or for as lengthy a duration as now.[7] Some sources say Florida red tide blooms are about 10- to 15-fold more abundant than they were 50 years ago.[8] Algal species that have harmful effects on either the environment or human health are commonly known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). HABs are harmful to organisms that share the same habitat as them, though only when in high concentrations.[2]

Detection[edit]

Traditional methods for the detection of K. brevis are based on microscopy or pigment analysis. They are time-consuming and typically require a skilled microscopist for identification.[9] Cultivation based identification is extremely difficult and can take several months. A molecular, real-time PCR-based approach for sensitive and accurate detection of K. brevis cells in marine environments has therefore been developed.[10] Another upcoming technique for the detection of K. brevis is multiwavelength spectroscopy, which uses a model-based examination of UV-vis spectra.[11] This particular protist is known to be harmful to humans, large fish, and other marine mammals. It has been found that the survival of scleractinian coral is negatively affected by brevetoxin. Scleractinian coral exhibits decreased rates of respiration when there is a high concentration of K. brevis.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Red Tide FAQ". www.tpwd.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  2. ^ a b c 12
  3. ^ Geesey, M. E., and P. A. Tester. 1993. Gymnodinium breveGymnodinium breve: ubiquitous in Gulf of Mexico waters, p. 251-256. InIn T. J. S. Smayda and Shimizu (ed.), Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, N.Y.
  4. ^ Kamykowski, D., E. J. Milligan, and R. E. Reed. 1998. Relationships between geotaxis/phototaxis and diel vertical migration in autotrophic dinoflagellates. J. Plankton Res. 20:1781-1796.
  5. ^ Aldrich, D. V. 1962. Photoautotrophy in Gymnodinium breve.Gymnodinium breve. Science 137:988-990.
  6. ^ Steidinger, K. A., and E. A. Joyce, Jr. 1973. Florida red tides. State Fla. Dep. Nat. Resour. Educat. Ser. 17:1-26.
  7. ^ http://redtideflorida.org/pages/index.php/yes-florida-red-tide-is-getting-worse.htm
  8. ^ http://redtideflorida.org/pages/index.php/evidence-red-tide-is-on-the-rise.htm
  9. ^ Millie, D. F., O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Hohnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard. 1997. Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. Gymnodinium breve. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42:1240-1251.
  10. ^ Gray, M., B. Wawrik, E. Caspar and J.H. Paul (2003). "Molecular Detection and Quantification of the Red Tide Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Marine Environment". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69 (9): 5726–5730. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.9.5726-5730.2003. PMC 194946. PMID 12957971 
  11. ^ Spear, H. Adam, K. Daly, D. Huffman, and L. Garcia-Rubio. 2009. Progress in developing a new detection method for the harmful algal bloom species, Karenia brevis, through multiwavelength spectroscopy. HARMFUL ALGAE. 8:189-195.

^12. Ross, Cliff, Raphael Ritson-Williams, Richard Pierce, J. Bradley Bullington, Michael Henry, and Valerie J. Paul. "Effects of the Florida Red Tide Dinoflagellate, Karenia Brevis, on Oxidative Stress and Metamorphosis of Larvae of the Coral Porites Astreoides." Science Direct. 6 September 2009. Web. 3 March 2010.

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