Overview

Brief Summary

Species Overview

Gymnodinium breve is an unarmoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate species. It is a toxin-producing species associated with red tides in the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of western Florida.

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Comprehensive Description

Cells are squarish in outline and are strongly dorso-ventrally flattened. The girdle is not or only slightly displaced (and if displaced is descending)
  • Brown, AFM., Dortch, Q., Dolah, FMV., Leighfield, TA., Morrison, W., Thessen, AE., Steidinger, K., Richardson, B., Moncreiff, CA.& Pennock, JR. 2006. Effect of salinity on the distribution, growth, and toxicity of Karenia spp. Harmful Algae. 2: 199-212.
  • Haywood, A J., Steidinger, K A., Truby, EW., Bergquist, PR., Bergquist, PL., Adamson, J., Mackenzie, L. 2004. Comparative morphology and molecular phlogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. J.Phycol. 40(1): 165-179.
  • Magana, HA., & Villareal, TA. 2006. The effect of environemtnal factors on the growth rate of Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen and Moestrup. Harmful Algae. 2: 192-198.
  • Taylor, FJR., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. YCembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Distribution

K. brevis is typical of warm temperate to tropical waters.
  • Brown, AFM., Dortch, Q., Dolah, FMV., Leighfield, TA., Morrison, W., Thessen, AE., Steidinger, K., Richardson, B., Moncreiff, CA.& Pennock, JR. 2006. Effect of salinity on the distribution, growth, and toxicity of Karenia spp. Harmful Algae. 2: 199-212.
  • Haywood, A J., Steidinger, K A., Truby, EW., Bergquist, PR., Bergquist, PL., Adamson, J., Mackenzie, L. 2004. Comparative morphology and molecular phlogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. J.Phycol. 40(1): 165-179.
  • Magana, HA., & Villareal, TA. 2006. The effect of environemtnal factors on the growth rate of Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen and Moestrup. Harmful Algae. 2: 192-198.
  • Taylor, FJR., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. YCembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Physical Description

Morphology

Morphology and Structure

Gymnodinium breve is a photosynthetic species with numerous peripheral yellowish-green chloroplasts and multistalked pyrenoids (Figs. 2, 3). The large round nucleus is 6-9 µm in diameter and located in the left half of the hypotheca (Figs. 3, 4). Lipid globules have also been observed (Fig. 3). This species does not have peridinin as a major accessory pigment.

  • Davis, C.C. 1948. Gymnodinium brevis sp. nov., a cause of discolored water and animal mortality in the Gulf of Mexico. Bot. Gaz. 109: 358-360.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Steidinger, K.A. 1983. A re-evaluation of toxic dinoflagellate biology and ecology. Prog. Phycol. Res. 2: 147-188.
  • Steidinger, K.A., E.W. Truby & C.J. Dawes 1978. Ultrastructure of the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. I. General description. J. Phycol. 14: 72-79.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Taxonomic Description

Gymnodinium breve is an athecate species; i.e. without thecal plates. Cells are small and dorso-ventrally flattened (Figs. 1-3). The cell is ventrally concave and dorsally convex. Cells appear almost square in outline, but with a prominent apical process directed ventrally (Figs. 1, 3, 4). Cells range in size from 20-40 µm in width to 10-15 µm in depth, and are slightly wider than long.

The epitheca is rounded with a distinctive overhanging apical process (Figs. 1-3). The epitheca is smaller than the hypotheca (Figs. 1-3). The cingulum is displaced in a descending fashion up to 2 times its width. It houses the transverse flagellum. The sulcus extends into the epitheca up to the antapex adjacent to the apical process (Fig. 4). It houses the longitudinal flagellum. An apical groove, present near the distal epithecal end of the sulcus, extends across the apical process onto the dorsal side of the cell (Figs. 1, 2). It is not an extension of the sulcus. The wide hypotheca is notched by the sulcus and is slightly bilobed posteriorly (Figs. 1-4). Discharged trichocysts have been observed.

  • Davis, C.C. 1948. Gymnodinium brevis sp. nov., a cause of discolored water and animal mortality in the Gulf of Mexico. Bot. Gaz. 109: 358-360.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Steidinger, K.A. 1983. A re-evaluation of toxic dinoflagellate biology and ecology. Prog. Phycol. Res. 2: 147-188.
  • Steidinger, K.A., E.W. Truby & C.J. Dawes 1978. Ultrastructure of the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. I. General description. J. Phycol. 14: 72-79.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Type Information

Isotype for Karenia brevis (C.C. Davis) Hansen & Moestrup in Daugbjerg et al.
Catalog Number: US 154918
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. Davis
Year Collected: 1947
Locality: Pine Island Sound, 1 mile south of Useppa Island., Lee County, Florida, United States, North America
Microhabitat: In bright yellow water
  • Isotype: Davis, C. C. 1948. Bot. Gaz. 109 (3): 358, figs. 1, 2.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Locality

G. breve populations are found in warm temperate to tropical waters, most regularly from the Gulf of Mexico, off the west coast of Florida. G. breve and G. breve-like species have also been reported from the West Atlantic, Spain, Greece, Japan and New Zealand.

  • Fukuyo, Y., H. Takano, M. Chihara & K. Matsuoka 1990. Red Tide Organisms in Japan. An Illustrated Taxonomic Guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 407 pp.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Depth range based on 20 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 36 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 20 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 200
  Temperature range (°C): 14.476 - 19.893
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.238 - 2.578
  Salinity (PPS): 38.453 - 38.961
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.993 - 5.576
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.072 - 0.167
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.127 - 2.767

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 200

Temperature range (°C): 14.476 - 19.893

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.238 - 2.578

Salinity (PPS): 38.453 - 38.961

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.993 - 5.576

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.072 - 0.167

Silicate (umol/l): 1.127 - 2.767
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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General Ecology

Ecology

G. breve is a planktonic oceanic species, though populations have been documented in estuarine systems under bloom conditions. This species is a bloom-former associated with red tides in the Gulf of Mexico, in particular the west coast of Florida. During a bloom cell levels can reach a high as 1 X 107 to 1 X 108 cells/L. Blooms initiate offshore requiring high salinities (> 30 o/oo) and high temperatures. G. breve cells are active swimmers resembling 'falling leaves as they swim slowly, turning over and over through the water'. This species forms cysts under adverse conditions. Chain formation reported in very dense concentrations.

  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Steidinger, K.A. 1975. Implications of dinoflagellate life cycles on initiation of Gymnodinium breve red tides. Environ. Lett. 9: 129-139.
  • Steidinger, K.A., E.W. Truby & C.J. Dawes 1978. Ultrastructure of the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium breve. I. General description. J. Phycol. 14: 72-79.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

G. breve reproduces asexually by binary fission; cells divide obliquely during mitosis. This species also has a sexual cycle: isogamous gamete production, fusion and formation of a planozygote. The planozygote is morphologically similar to the vegetative cell, but larger. The gametes are rounder and slightly smaller than the vegetative cells (18-24 µm in diameter). It is speculated that temperature controls the onset of the sexual cycle since sexual stages only occurred in fall and winter in both field populations and cultures.

  • Walker, L.M. 1982. Evidence for a sexual cycle in the Florida red tide dinoflagellate Ptychodiscus brevis (=Gymnodinium breve). Bioscience 32: 809-810.
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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Toxicity

G. breve is a known toxic species that produces a series of brevetoxins (neurotoxins). These toxins are responsible for massive fill kills along the west coast of Florida in the Gulf of Mexico. Aerosolization of the toxins (noxious air-borne G. breve fragments from sea spray) has been linked to asthma-like symptoms in humans. Brevetoxins produce neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) when consumed. These toxins are known to cause human illness and distress; however, the poison is not fatal: no human fatalities have been reported from consumption of G. breve-infected bivalves. So far NSP has been restricted to the western coast of Florida, but more recently it has been documented for New Zealand as well.

  • Baden, D.G. 1983. Marine food-borne dinoflagellate toxins. Intern. Rev. Cytol. 82: 99-150.
  • Baden, D.G., T.J. Mende, W. Lichter & L. Wellham 1981. Crystallization and toxicology of T34: A major toxin from Florida's red tide organism (Ptychodiscus brevis). Toxicon 19: 455-462.
  • Hughes, J.M. 1979. Epidemiology of shellfish poisoning in the United States, 1971-1977. In: D.L. Taylor & H.H. Seliger (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Elsevier/North-Holland, New York: 23-28.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & E.A. Joyce, Jr. 1973. Florida Red Tides. State of Florida Department of Natural Resources, Educational Ser. No. 17: 1-26.
  • Steidinger, K.A., Burklew, M.A. & R.M. Ingle 1973. The effects of Gymnodinium breve toxin on estuarine animals. In: D.F. Martine & G.M. Padilla (eds.), Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, Orlando: 201-261.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Karenia brevis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Karenia brevis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Management

Toxicity

Karenia brevis uses Brevetoxins and derivatives. Some of the associated effects of these toxins are Neurotoxic Shellfish Posioning (NSP) and fish kills.
  • Brown, AFM., Dortch, Q., Dolah, FMV., Leighfield, TA., Morrison, W., Thessen, AE., Steidinger, K., Richardson, B., Moncreiff, CA.& Pennock, JR. 2006. Effect of salinity on the distribution, growth, and toxicity of Karenia spp. Harmful Algae. 2: 199-212.
  • Haywood, A J., Steidinger, K A., Truby, EW., Bergquist, PR., Bergquist, PL., Adamson, J., Mackenzie, L. 2004. Comparative morphology and molecular phlogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. J.Phycol. 40(1): 165-179.
  • Magana, HA., & Villareal, TA. 2006. The effect of environemtnal factors on the growth rate of Karenia brevis (Davis) G. Hansen and Moestrup. Harmful Algae. 2: 192-198.
  • Taylor, FJR., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. YCembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Wikipedia

Karenia brevis

Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve and Ptychodiscus brevis) is a marine dinoflagellate common in Gulf of Mexico waters, and is the organism responsible for Florida red tide, as well as red tide in Texas.[1]

Description[edit]

K. brevis is a microscopic, single-celled, photosynthetic organism that can "bloom" (see algal bloom) frequently along Florida coastal waters. Each cell has two flagella that allow it to move through the water in a spinning motion. K. brevis naturally produces a suite of potent neurotoxins collectively called brevetoxins, which cause gastrointestinal and neurological problems in other organisms and are responsible for large die-offs of marine organisms and seabirds.[2] K. brevis is unarmored, and does not contain peridinin. Cells are between 20 and 40 μm in diameter.

Ecology and distribution[edit]

In its normal environment, K. brevis will move in the direction of greater light[3] and against the direction of gravity,[4] which will tend to keep the organism at the surface of whatever body of water it is suspended within. Cells are thought to require photosynthesis to obtain nutrition.[5] Its swimming speed is about one metre per hour.[6] K. brevis is the causative agent of Red Tide, when K. brevis has grown to very high concentrations and the water can take on a reddish or pinkish coloration. The region around southwest Florida is one of the major hotspots for red tide blooms. Red Tide outbreaks have been known to occur since the Spanish explorers of the 15th century, although not nearly as common, or for as lengthy a duration as now.[7] Some sources say Florida red tide blooms are about 10- to 15-fold more abundant than they were 50 years ago.[8] Algal species that have harmful effects on either the environment or human health are commonly known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). HABs are harmful to organisms that share the same habitat as them, though only when in high concentrations.[2]

Detection[edit]

Traditional methods for the detection of K. brevis are based on microscopy or pigment analysis. They are time-consuming and typically require a skilled microscopist for identification.[9] Cultivation based identification is extremely difficult and can take several months. A molecular, real-time PCR-based approach for sensitive and accurate detection of K. brevis cells in marine environments has therefore been developed.[10] Another upcoming technique for the detection of K. brevis is multiwavelength spectroscopy, which uses a model-based examination of UV-vis spectra.[11] This particular protist is known to be harmful to humans, large fish, and other marine mammals. It has been found that the survival of scleractinian coral is negatively affected by brevetoxin. Scleractinian coral exhibits decreased rates of respiration when there is a high concentration of K. brevis.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Red Tide FAQ". www.tpwd.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  2. ^ a b c 12
  3. ^ Geesey, M. E., and P. A. Tester. 1993. Gymnodinium breveGymnodinium breve: ubiquitous in Gulf of Mexico waters, p. 251-256. InIn T. J. S. Smayda and Shimizu (ed.), Toxic phytoplankton blooms in the sea: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Elsevier Science Publishing, Inc., New York, N.Y.
  4. ^ Kamykowski, D., E. J. Milligan, and R. E. Reed. 1998. Relationships between geotaxis/phototaxis and diel vertical migration in autotrophic dinoflagellates. J. Plankton Res. 20:1781-1796.
  5. ^ Aldrich, D. V. 1962. Photoautotrophy in Gymnodinium breve.Gymnodinium breve. Science 137:988-990.
  6. ^ Steidinger, K. A., and E. A. Joyce, Jr. 1973. Florida red tides. State Fla. Dep. Nat. Resour. Educat. Ser. 17:1-26.
  7. ^ http://redtideflorida.org/pages/index.php/yes-florida-red-tide-is-getting-worse.htm
  8. ^ http://redtideflorida.org/pages/index.php/evidence-red-tide-is-on-the-rise.htm
  9. ^ Millie, D. F., O. M. Schofield, G. J. Kirkpatrick, G. Hohnsen, P. A. Tester, and B. T. Vinyard. 1997. Detection of harmful algal blooms using photopigments and absorption signatures: a case study of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. Gymnodinium breve. Limnol. Oceanogr. 42:1240-1251.
  10. ^ Gray, M., B. Wawrik, E. Caspar and J.H. Paul (2003). "Molecular Detection and Quantification of the Red Tide Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the Marine Environment". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69 (9): 5726–5730. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.9.5726-5730.2003. PMC 194946. PMID 12957971. 
  11. ^ Spear, H. Adam, K. Daly, D. Huffman, and L. Garcia-Rubio. 2009. Progress in developing a new detection method for the harmful algal bloom species, Karenia brevis, through multiwavelength spectroscopy. HARMFUL ALGAE. 8:189-195.

^12. Ross, Cliff, Raphael Ritson-Williams, Richard Pierce, J. Bradley Bullington, Michael Henry, and Valerie J. Paul. "Effects of the Florida Red Tide Dinoflagellate, Karenia Brevis, on Oxidative Stress and Metamorphosis of Larvae of the Coral Porites Astreoides." Science Direct. 6 September 2009. Web. 3 March 2010.

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