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Description of Chromulina

Usually single-celled naked flagellates with one visible apical flagellum; second very short flagellum in a pocket of the cell surface detected in species examined by electron microscopy; cells spherical, cylindrical to pyriform and often metabolic, usually free-swimming, but occasionally attaching to surfaces with posterior end, or becoming rhizopodial or palmelloid; cells with 1-2 chloroplasts, eyespot and pyrenoid present in some species; contractile vacuoles usually 1-2 (-6); many species with peripheral extrusomes (mucocysts, discobolocysts); nutrition phototrophic and phagotrophic; asexual reproduction by cell division in motile or palmelloid state; possible sexual fusion of palmelloid cells reported for one species (C. pleiades Parke 1949); stomatocysts smooth or ornamented; many species in freshwater, some on soil and snow, and a few in brackish and marine waters. Type species Chromulina nebulosa Cienkowski 1870.

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