Read full entry


Hawk moths are important pollinators of many different plant species and are often associated with orchids (Angraecum spp.), lavender (Lavandula spp.), luehea (Luehea spp.), sea daffodil (Pancratium maritimum), and phlox (Polemoniaceae spp.). In general, hawk moths pollinate plants that have flowers with the following traits: nocturnal flower opening, white or pale coloration, sweet fragrance, horizontal to pendant posture, abundant sucrose-rich nectar, and a long nectar tube. Hawk moths insert their tongues, and sometimes their bodies, into nectar tubes to collect nectar. In doing so, they incidentally touch the flower's anthers and stigmas, transferring pollen to the same and other blossoms. Nectar tubes and hawk moth tongue lengths are often associated - a shorter tongue than tube usually does not allow a hawk moth to collect nectar and a longer tongue than tube makes the hawk moth less effective at pollen removal and pollination. These relationships range from strong one-to-one tongue- and tube-length mutualisms to more general. Hawk moths have been documented with tongues up to 14 inches long! However, the average North American hawk moth tongue is 2 1/3 inches long with the average nectar tube of flowers pollinated by North American hawk moths just over 2 inches long.


Public Domain

National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) at

Supplier: Bob Corrigan


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!