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Range DescriptionProcnias tricarunculatus breeds in central Costa Rica and Panama (with a small population on the Nicoya peninsula) (Stiles and Skutch 1989, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999), north-west Nicaragua (Monroe 1968, Stiles and Skutch 1989), and almost certainly the Sierra de Agalta, Honduras (Anderson et al. 1998). In 1976, it was common on Isla Coiba, Panama (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989), where it presumably breeds and is potentially resident. It winters on the Caribbean slope and adjacent lowlands in Honduras and south-east Nicaragua (Monroe 1968, Howell and Webb 1995a, Powell and Bjork 2004), and in lowland and foothill forests on both slopes in Costa Rica and Panama. Records from the upper río Plátano may refer to transients (Vallely et al. 2010). In Panama, most birds now winter on the Caribbean slope, presumably because of deforestation in the Pacific lowlands (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989). A few recent records in the Canal zone perhaps refer to birds displaced from former wintering areas (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989).