The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Albo, M.J. and F.G. Costa. 2010. Nuptial gift-giving behaviour and male mating effort in the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae). Animal Behaviour 79(5): 1031-1036.
  • Albo, M.J., L.E. Costa-Schmidt, and F.G Costa. 2009. To feed or to wrap? Female silk cues elicit male nuptial gift construction in a semiaquatic trechaleid spider. Journal of Zoology. 277(4): 284-290
  • Bradley, R.A. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Breene, R. G., D. Allen Dean, G. B. Edwards, Blain Hebert, Herbert W. Levi, Gail Manning, et al. 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. 42
  • Carico, J.E. 1986. Trechaleidae: a "new" American spider family. P. 305 in W.G. Eberhard, Y.D. Lubin, and B.C. Robinson (editors). Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Arachnology Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
  • Carico, J.E. 1993. Revision of the genus Trechalea Thorell (Araneae, Trechaleidae) with a review of the taxonomy of the Trechaleidae and Pisauridae of the Western Hemisphere. Journal of Arachnology 21: 226-257.
  • Carico, J.E. 2005. Trechaleidae. P. 249 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
  • Carico, J.E. and E.W. Minch. 1981. A new species of Trechalea (Pisauridae) from North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 170: 154-156.
  • Costa-Schmidt, L. E. and G. Machado 2012. Reproductive interference between two sibling species of gift-giving spiders. Animal Behaviour 84(5): 1201-1211.
  • Costa-Schmidt, L.E., J.E. Carico, and A.M. de Araújo. 2008. Nuptial gifts and sexual behavior in two species of spider (Araneae, Trechaleidae, Paratrechalea). Naturwissenschaften 95(8): 731-739.
  • Disconzi Brum, P.E., L.E. Costa-Schmidt, and A.M. de Araujo. 2012. It is a matter of taste: chemical signals mediate nuptial gift acceptance in a neotropical spider. Behavioral Ecology 23(2): 442-447.
  • Klein, A. L., M.C. Trillo, F.G. Costa, and M.J. Albo. 2014. Nuptial gift size, mating duration and remating success in a Neotropical spider. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 26(1): 29-39.
  • Klein, A.L., M.C. Trillo, and M.J. Albo. 2012. Sexual receptivity varies according to female age in a Neotropical nuptial gift-giving spider. Journal of Arachnology 40(1): 138-140.
  • Platnick, N. I. 2014. The world spider catalog, version 14.5. American Museum of Natural History, online at


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