The spider family Trechaleidae includes 120 described species, just one of which (Trechalea gertschi) occurs in North America north of Mexico, with a range extending from Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico into portions of the Gila River drainage in Arizona and New Mexico. This family is limited almost entirely to the New World tropics. (Carico 2005; Platnick 2014). Carico (2005) briefly reviewed the taxonomic history of the trechaleids.
Trechalea gertschi is a relatively large, crablike spider. The body is moderately flat, with long legs that are held in a somewhat crablike stance. In the southwestern United States, these spiders are found at the margins of permanent streams and are typically seen perched head-down on the surfaces of rocks near the water margin. They readily run across the water surface and occasionally crawl underwater by walking down the surface of a partly submerged rock, behaviors seen in many North American Dolomedes (family Pisauridae), which T. gertschi closely resembles (although the posterior eye row is much straighter than in T. gertschi than it is in Dolomedes). Females carry the flattened, two-valved egg sac with their spinnerets and spiderlings ride on the upper surface of the sac upon emergence. (Carico 2005; Bradley 2013)
Nuptial courtship gift-giving in several Paratrechalea species has been the focus of a number of studies (Costa-Schmidt et al. 2008; Albo et al. 2009; Albo and Costa 2010; Klein et al. 2012; Disconzi Brum et al. 2012; Costa-Schmidt and Machado 2012; Klein et al. 2014).
- Albo, M.J. and F.G. Costa. 2010. Nuptial gift-giving behaviour and male mating effort in the Neotropical spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae). Animal Behaviour 79(5): 1031-1036.
- Albo, M.J., L.E. Costa-Schmidt, and F.G Costa. 2009. To feed or to wrap? Female silk cues elicit male nuptial gift construction in a semiaquatic trechaleid spider. Journal of Zoology. 277(4): 284-290
- Bradley, R.A. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
- Carico, J.E. 1986. Trechaleidae: a "new" American spider family. P. 305 in W.G. Eberhard, Y.D. Lubin, and B.C. Robinson (editors). Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Arachnology Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
- Carico, J.E. 1993. Revision of the genus Trechalea Thorell (Araneae, Trechaleidae) with a review of the taxonomy of the Trechaleidae and Pisauridae of the Western Hemisphere. Journal of Arachnology 21: 226-257.
- Carico, J.E. 2005. Trechaleidae. P. 249 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
- Carico, J.E. and E.W. Minch. 1981. A new species of Trechalea (Pisauridae) from North America. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 170: 154-156.
- Costa-Schmidt, L. E. and G. Machado 2012. Reproductive interference between two sibling species of gift-giving spiders. Animal Behaviour 84(5): 1201-1211.
- Costa-Schmidt, L.E., J.E. Carico, and A.M. de Araújo. 2008. Nuptial gifts and sexual behavior in two species of spider (Araneae, Trechaleidae, Paratrechalea). Naturwissenschaften 95(8): 731-739.
- Disconzi Brum, P.E., L.E. Costa-Schmidt, and A.M. de Araujo. 2012. It is a matter of taste: chemical signals mediate nuptial gift acceptance in a neotropical spider. Behavioral Ecology 23(2): 442-447.
- Klein, A. L., M.C. Trillo, F.G. Costa, and M.J. Albo. 2014. Nuptial gift size, mating duration and remating success in a Neotropical spider. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 26(1): 29-39.
- Klein, A.L., M.C. Trillo, and M.J. Albo. 2012. Sexual receptivity varies according to female age in a Neotropical nuptial gift-giving spider. Journal of Arachnology 40(1): 138-140.
- Platnick, N. I. 2014. The world spider catalog, version 14.5. American Museum of Natural History, online at http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:28
Specimens with Barcodes:27
Species With Barcodes:2
- Amapalea (Brazil)
- Barrisca Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 (South America)
- Demelodos Mello-Leitão, 1943 (Brazil)
- Dossenus Simon, 1898 (South America)
- Dyrines Simon, 1903 (South America)
- Enna O. P-Cambridge, 1897 (Mexico to Venezuela)
- Heidrunea Brescovit & Höfer, 1994 (Brazil)
- Hesydrus Simon, 1898 (Central and South America)
- Magnichela (Brazil)
- Neoctenus Simon, 1897 (South America)
- Paradossenus F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1903 (South America)
- Paratrechalea Carico, 2005 (South America)
- Rhoicinus Simon, 1898 (South America)
- Shinobius Yaginuma, 1991 (Japan)
- Syntrechalea F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1902 (Central America)
- Trechalea Thorell, 1869 (USA to Peru)
- Trechaleoides Carico, 2005 (South America)
- Höfer, H. & A. D. Brescovit. On the spider genus Rhoicinus (Araneae, Trechaleidae) in a central Amazonian inundation forest. J. Arachnol. 22: 54-59. PDF
- Carico, J. E. (1993b). Revision of the genus Trechalea Thorell (Araneae, Trechaleidae) with a review of the taxonomy of the Trechaleidae and Pisauridae of the Western Hemisphere. J. Arachnol. 21: 226-257. PDF
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