The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • L. L. Pechuman and H. J. Teskey, “Chapter 31. Tabanidae”, in Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol. 1, J. F. McAlpine, B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth, and D. M. Wood Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1981, pp. 463-478.
  • Townsend, CR, Thompson, RM, McIntosh, AR, Kilroy, C, Edwards, ED, Scarsbrook, MR. 1998. Disturbance, resource supply and food-web architecture in streams. Ecology Letters 1:200-209.


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