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Overview

Brief Summary

Species Overview

Dinophysis acuminata is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate species. It is a toxic species associated with DSP events and is commonly found in coastal waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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Comprehensive Description

Cells are oval and strongly laterally flattened. The hypotheca is covered by small pores. Small protruberances are sometimes present at the posterior end of the cell.
  • Dodge JD (1982) Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London
  • Balech, E (1976). Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia, 61:75-94.
  • Hansen G (1993) Dimoprphic individuals of Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters. Phycologia 32:73-75
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Distribution

It occurs all around the UK, mainly in spring and summer.
  • Dodge JD (1982) Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London
  • Balech, E (1976). Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia, 61:75-94.
  • Hansen G (1993) Dimoprphic individuals of Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters. Phycologia 32:73-75
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Physical Description

Morphology

Morphology and Structure

Dinophysis acuminata is a photosynthetic species with large chloroplasts, a posterior pyrenoid, and a large central nucleus.

  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Zingone, A., M. Montresor & D. Marino 1998. Morphological variability of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus (Dinophyceae) and its taxonomic relationships with D. pavillardii and D. acuminata. Eur. J. Phycol. 33: 259-273.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Thecal Plate Description

The epitheca is slightly convex and inclined ventrally (Figs. 1-4). Made up of four plates, it is not visible in lateral view.

The cingulum is made up of four unequal plates, and is bordered by two well-developed lists: an anterior cingular list (ACL), often with ridges, and a smooth posterior cingular list (PCL) (Fig. 1). The dorsal end of the cingulum is concave, strongly inclined and (Figs. 1, 6).

The sulcus is comprised of four irregularly shaped plates. The flagellar pore is housed in the sulcal area. The LSL, supported by three ribs, is rather narrow and often sculptured with reticulated ribs, lines and areolae. The third rib on the left sulcal list is the longest, and is usually strongly curved posteriorly (Figs. 1, 4, 6). Sulcal plate development is highly variable in this species.

The hypotheca, with four large plates, comprises the majority of the cell. The dorsal margin is more or less evenly convex (Figs. 1, 2, 4). The ventral margin is rarely convex; it is generally oblique and flat (Figs. 2-5). The antapex is ventrally off-center (Figs. 2-5).

  • Abè, T.H. 1967a. The armoured Dinoflagellata: II. Prorocentridae and Dinophysidae (A). Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 14: 369-389.
  • Balech, E. 1976. Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia 61: 75-94.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Zingone, A., M. Montresor & D. Marino 1998. Morphological variability of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus (Dinophyceae) and its taxonomic relationships with D. pavillardii and D. acuminata. Eur. J. Phycol. 33: 259-273.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Taxonomic Description

Species in this genus are laterally compressed with a small, cap-like epitheca and a much larger hypotheca (dorso-ventral depth of epitheca is 1/3 to 1/2 of hypotheca). The shape of the cell in lateral view is the most important criterion used for identification. However, size and shape varies considerably in this species.

Cells of Dinophysis acuminata are small to medium, almost oval or elliptical in shape (Figs. 1-5). The shape can vary from rotund to long and narrow in lateral view. A well-developed left sulcal list (LSL) extends beyond the midpoint of the cell (1/2 to 2/3 of cell length (Figs. 1-3). The antapex is rounded, and cells are commonly found with two to four small knob-shaped posterior protrusions; sometimes well-developed and sometimes not (Figs. 2-5).

The thick thecal plates are covered with prominent circular areolae, each with a pore (Fig. 2). These markings can vary depending on the age of the cell. The variations can range from only pores (Fig. 3), to depressions with scattered pores (Fig. 1), to depressions each with a pore, to areolae each with a pore (Fig. 2). Pores are not found in the megacytic zone (Fig. 3). Cell size ranges: 38-58 µm in length and 30-40 µm in dorso-ventral width widest near middle of cell.

  • Abè, T.H. 1967b. The armoured Dinoflagellata: II. Prorocentridae and Dinophysidae (B) - Dinophysis and its allied genera. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 15: 37-78.
  • Balech, E. 1976. Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia 61: 75-94.
  • Dodge, J.D. 1982. Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. 303 pp.
  • Fukuyo, Y., H. Takano, M. Chihara & K. Matsuoka 1990. Red Tide Organisms in Japan. An Illustrated Taxonomic Guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 407 pp.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed.), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Lebour, M.V. 1925. The Dinoflagellates of Northern Seas. Marine Biol. Assoc. U.K., Plymouth. 250 pp.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Type Information

Type locality: North Sea: Norway
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Look Alikes

Species Comparison

D. acuminata can be confused with D. sacculus, D. norvegica, D. ovum and D. punctata, but is most often misidentified as D. sacculus. The major difference between D. acuminata and D. sacculus is the shape of the large hypothecal plates: in D. acuminata they are shorter, more convex dorsally and often more slender posteriorly; whereas, in D. sacculus they are long and sack-like. D. acuminata also exhibits more pronounced thecal areolation and sulcal list ornamentation, but these are variable features. Since these two species rarely occur in the same area with the same importance, the possibility of misidentification is reduced. Surface thecal ornamentation in this species is similar to D. sacculus.

  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Zingone, A., M. Montresor & D. Marino 1998. Morphological variability of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus (Dinophyceae) and its taxonomic relationships with D. pavillardii and D. acuminata. Eur. J. Phycol. 33: 259-273.
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National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Locality

Populations of Dinophysis acuminata are distributed widely in temperate waters. They are most common and abundant in coastal waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, especially eutrophic areas.

  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Depth range based on 14 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 3

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 3
 
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Depth range based on 5410 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 404 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 270
  Temperature range (°C): -1.203 - 21.917
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.738 - 10.982
  Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 37.775
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.041 - 8.968
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 0.677
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.190 - 39.813

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 270

Temperature range (°C): -1.203 - 21.917

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.738 - 10.982

Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 37.775

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.041 - 8.968

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 0.677

Silicate (umol/l): 1.190 - 39.813
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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General Ecology

Ecology

D. acuminata is a planktonic toxic bloom-forming species. The most extensive blooms have been reported from the summer and fall months. Blooms have been reported from many parts of the world; however, they have been particularly extensive with cell concentrations less than 40,000 cells/L. Blooms are often associated with toxicity of shellfish. Jacobson and Andersen (1994) found a high number of food vacuoles in cells of Dinophysis acuminata and deduced that mixotrophy is an important aspect of its biology. They speculate that this species feeds by way of a peduncle (myzocytosis), the feeding mode used by the heterotrophic species Dinophysis rotundata and D. hastata. The peduncle, the proposed feeding apparatus, passes through the cytostomal opening in the theca when the cell is feeding.

  • Jacobson, D.M. & D.M. Anderson 1986. Thecate heterotrophic dinoflagellates: feeding behavior and mechanism. J. Phycol. 22: 249-258.
  • Kat, M. 1985. Dinophysis acuminata blooms, the distinct cause of Dutch mussel poisoning. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 73-78.
  • Kat, M. 1989. Toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellate blooms on the Dutch coast. In: T. Okaichi, D.M. Anderson & T. Nemoto (eds.), Red Tides, Proc. 1st Inter. Symp. Red Tides, Elsevier, New York: 73-76.
  • Schnepf, E. & G. Deichgraber 1983. 'Myzocytosis', a kind of endocytosis with implications to compartmentation in endosymbiosis. Observations in Paulsenella (Dinophyta). Naturwiss. 71: 218-219.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

D. acuminata reproduces asexually by binary fission. Mackenzie (1991) reported sexual reproduction via the fusion of anisogamous gametes.

  • Mackenzie, L. 1991. Does Dinophysis (Dinophyceae) have a sex life? J. Phycol. 28: 399-406.
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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Toxicity

D. acuminata is a toxic species that has been found to produce okadaic acid (OA) causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Toxicity can vary considerably among seasons and areas where it blooms. This species can cause shellfish toxicity at very low cell concentrations (as low as 200 cells/L). Hoshiai et al. (1997), however, reported a case of nontoxic mussels in Kesennuma Bay, northern Japan, in the presence of high concentrations of D. acuminata cells.

  • Cembella, A.D. 1989. Occurrence of okadaic acid, a major diarrheic shellfish toxin, in natural populations of Dinophysis spp. from the eastern coast of North America. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 307-310.
  • Hoshiai, G.-i., T. Shuzuki, T. Onodera, M. Yamasaki & S. Taguchi 1997. A case of non-toxic mussels under the presence of high concentrations of toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata that occurred in Kesennuma Bay, northern Japan. Fish. Sci. 63: 317-318.
  • Kat, M. 1985. Dinophysis acuminata blooms, the distinct cause of Dutch mussel poisoning. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 73-78.
  • Lee, J.-S., T. Igarashi, S. Fraga, E. Dahl, P. Hovgaard & T. Yasumoto 1989. Determination of diarrhetic toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 147-152.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dinophysis acuminata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dinophysis acuminata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Management

Toxicity

D. acuminata is a producer of DSP toxins (okadaic acid)
  • Dodge JD (1982) Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London
  • Balech, E (1976). Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia, 61:75-94.
  • Hansen G (1993) Dimoprphic individuals of Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters. Phycologia 32:73-75
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Wikipedia

Dinophysis acuminata

Dinophysis acuminata Claparède et Lachmann, 1859 Formalin fixed sample, surface, sampling station 7 (North Sea). Species originally described in1859. The antapical portion of the cell is rounded and can bear small prot

Dinophysis acuminata is a marine plankton species of the Dinoflagellate phylum that is found in coastal waters of the north Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[1] Dinoflagellates are a large group of flagellate protists found in marine and freshwater environments. The Dinophysis genus includes both phototrophic and heterotrophic species. D. acuminata is one of several phototrophic species of Dinophysis classed as toxic, as they produce okadaic acid which can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Okadiac acid is taken up by shellfish and has been found in the soft tissue of mussels and the liver of flounder species.

Taxonomic description[edit]

The taxonomic identification of Dinophysis species is largely based on cell contouring, size and shape of their large hypothecal plates and the shape of their left sulcal lists and ribs (N Raho et al 2008). When viewed laterally species in the Dinophysis genus are laterally compressed with a cap-like epitheca and a much larger hypotheca although the size and shape of these species varies greatly due to their polymorphic life cycle. In side view D. acuminata cells are irregularly egg-shaped, dorsally convex and have large hypothecal plates with a more or less oval shape. The dorsal contour is always more strongly convex than the ventral one. Compared to other species of Dinophysis D. acuminata has a more straight ventral margin and larger left sulcal lists with more prominent ribs. Due to the morphological variability of Dinophysis species identification can be hard, especially when two species (D. acuminata and D. sacculus) co-exist. For this reason the term “D. acuminata complex” was coined to label a group of co-existing species difficult to discriminate (N Raho et al 2008).

Feeding[edit]

Microscopic observations of live cells using established cultures revealed that D. acuminata uses a peduncle, extending from the flagellar pore, to extract the cell contents of the marine ciliate Myrionecta rubra (prey). The ciliate is captured by D. acuminata upon mechanical contact. After about 1 minute the trapped M. rubra becomes immobile after which the D. acuminata slowly consumes the ciliate, over 1-2 hours, filling its vacuoles with the ciliate's cytoplasm.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Setälä, Outi; Autio, Riitta; Kuosa, Harri; Rintala, Janne; Ylöstalo, Pasi (2005). "Survival and photosynthetic activity of different Dinophysis acuminata populations in the northern Baltic Sea". Harmful Algae 4 (2): 337–350. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2004.06.017. ISSN 1568-9883. 
  2. ^ Raho, Nicolás; Pizarro, Gemita; Escalera, Laura; Reguera, Beatriz; Marín, Irma (2008). "Morphology, toxin composition and molecular analysis of Dinophysis ovum Schütt, a dinoflagellate of the “Dinophysis acuminata complex”". Harmful Algae 7 (6): 839–848. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2008.04.006. ISSN 1568-9883. 
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