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Overview

Brief Summary

Species Overview

Dinophysis acuminata is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate species. It is a toxic species associated with DSP events and is commonly found in coastal waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

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Comprehensive Description

Cells are oval and strongly laterally flattened. The hypotheca is covered by small pores. Small protruberances are sometimes present at the posterior end of the cell.
  • Balech, E (1976). Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia, 61:75-94.
  • Dodge JD (1982) Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London
  • Hansen G (1993) Dimoprphic individuals of Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters. Phycologia 32:73-75
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Distribution

It occurs all around the UK, mainly in spring and summer.
  • Balech, E (1976). Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia, 61:75-94.
  • Dodge JD (1982) Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London
  • Hansen G (1993) Dimoprphic individuals of Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters. Phycologia 32:73-75
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Physical Description

Morphology

Morphology and Structure

Dinophysis acuminata is a photosynthetic species with large chloroplasts, a posterior pyrenoid, and a large central nucleus.

  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Zingone, A., M. Montresor & D. Marino 1998. Morphological variability of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus (Dinophyceae) and its taxonomic relationships with D. pavillardii and D. acuminata. Eur. J. Phycol. 33: 259-273.
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Thecal Plate Description

The epitheca is slightly convex and inclined ventrally (Figs. 1-4). Made up of four plates, it is not visible in lateral view.

The cingulum is made up of four unequal plates, and is bordered by two well-developed lists: an anterior cingular list (ACL), often with ridges, and a smooth posterior cingular list (PCL) (Fig. 1). The dorsal end of the cingulum is concave, strongly inclined and (Figs. 1, 6).

The sulcus is comprised of four irregularly shaped plates. The flagellar pore is housed in the sulcal area. The LSL, supported by three ribs, is rather narrow and often sculptured with reticulated ribs, lines and areolae. The third rib on the left sulcal list is the longest, and is usually strongly curved posteriorly (Figs. 1, 4, 6). Sulcal plate development is highly variable in this species.

The hypotheca, with four large plates, comprises the majority of the cell. The dorsal margin is more or less evenly convex (Figs. 1, 2, 4). The ventral margin is rarely convex; it is generally oblique and flat (Figs. 2-5). The antapex is ventrally off-center (Figs. 2-5).

  • Abè, T.H. 1967a. The armoured Dinoflagellata: II. Prorocentridae and Dinophysidae (A). Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 14: 369-389.
  • Balech, E. 1976. Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia 61: 75-94.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Zingone, A., M. Montresor & D. Marino 1998. Morphological variability of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus (Dinophyceae) and its taxonomic relationships with D. pavillardii and D. acuminata. Eur. J. Phycol. 33: 259-273.
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Taxonomic Description

Species in this genus are laterally compressed with a small, cap-like epitheca and a much larger hypotheca (dorso-ventral depth of epitheca is 1/3 to 1/2 of hypotheca). The shape of the cell in lateral view is the most important criterion used for identification. However, size and shape varies considerably in this species.

Cells of Dinophysis acuminata are small to medium, almost oval or elliptical in shape (Figs. 1-5). The shape can vary from rotund to long and narrow in lateral view. A well-developed left sulcal list (LSL) extends beyond the midpoint of the cell (1/2 to 2/3 of cell length (Figs. 1-3). The antapex is rounded, and cells are commonly found with two to four small knob-shaped posterior protrusions; sometimes well-developed and sometimes not (Figs. 2-5).

The thick thecal plates are covered with prominent circular areolae, each with a pore (Fig. 2). These markings can vary depending on the age of the cell. The variations can range from only pores (Fig. 3), to depressions with scattered pores (Fig. 1), to depressions each with a pore, to areolae each with a pore (Fig. 2). Pores are not found in the megacytic zone (Fig. 3). Cell size ranges: 38-58 µm in length and 30-40 µm in dorso-ventral width widest near middle of cell.

  • Abè, T.H. 1967b. The armoured Dinoflagellata: II. Prorocentridae and Dinophysidae (B) - Dinophysis and its allied genera. Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 15: 37-78.
  • Balech, E. 1976. Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia 61: 75-94.
  • Dodge, J.D. 1982. Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London. 303 pp.
  • Fukuyo, Y., H. Takano, M. Chihara & K. Matsuoka 1990. Red Tide Organisms in Japan. An Illustrated Taxonomic Guide. Uchida Rokakuho, Co., Ltd., Tokyo. 407 pp.
  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed.), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Lebour, M.V. 1925. The Dinoflagellates of Northern Seas. Marine Biol. Assoc. U.K., Plymouth. 250 pp.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Type Information

Type locality: North Sea: Norway
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Look Alikes

Species Comparison

D. acuminata can be confused with D. sacculus, D. norvegica, D. ovum and D. punctata, but is most often misidentified as D. sacculus. The major difference between D. acuminata and D. sacculus is the shape of the large hypothecal plates: in D. acuminata they are shorter, more convex dorsally and often more slender posteriorly; whereas, in D. sacculus they are long and sack-like. D. acuminata also exhibits more pronounced thecal areolation and sulcal list ornamentation, but these are variable features. Since these two species rarely occur in the same area with the same importance, the possibility of misidentification is reduced. Surface thecal ornamentation in this species is similar to D. sacculus.

  • Hallegraeff, G.M. & I.A.N. Lucas 1988. The marine dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae): photosynthetic, neritic and non-photosynthetic, oceanic species. Phycologia 27: 25-42.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Zingone, A., M. Montresor & D. Marino 1998. Morphological variability of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis sacculus (Dinophyceae) and its taxonomic relationships with D. pavillardii and D. acuminata. Eur. J. Phycol. 33: 259-273.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Locality

Populations of Dinophysis acuminata are distributed widely in temperate waters. They are most common and abundant in coastal waters of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, especially eutrophic areas.

  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Depth range based on 14 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 3

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 3
 
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Depth range based on 5410 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 404 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 270
  Temperature range (°C): -1.203 - 21.917
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.738 - 10.982
  Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 37.775
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.041 - 8.968
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 0.677
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.190 - 39.813

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 270

Temperature range (°C): -1.203 - 21.917

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.738 - 10.982

Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 37.775

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.041 - 8.968

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 0.677

Silicate (umol/l): 1.190 - 39.813
 
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General Ecology

Ecology

D. acuminata is a planktonic toxic bloom-forming species. The most extensive blooms have been reported from the summer and fall months. Blooms have been reported from many parts of the world; however, they have been particularly extensive with cell concentrations less than 40,000 cells/L. Blooms are often associated with toxicity of shellfish. Jacobson and Andersen (1994) found a high number of food vacuoles in cells of Dinophysis acuminata and deduced that mixotrophy is an important aspect of its biology. They speculate that this species feeds by way of a peduncle (myzocytosis), the feeding mode used by the heterotrophic species Dinophysis rotundata and D. hastata. The peduncle, the proposed feeding apparatus, passes through the cytostomal opening in the theca when the cell is feeding.

  • Jacobson, D.M. & D.M. Anderson 1986. Thecate heterotrophic dinoflagellates: feeding behavior and mechanism. J. Phycol. 22: 249-258.
  • Kat, M. 1985. Dinophysis acuminata blooms, the distinct cause of Dutch mussel poisoning. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 73-78.
  • Kat, M. 1989. Toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellate blooms on the Dutch coast. In: T. Okaichi, D.M. Anderson & T. Nemoto (eds.), Red Tides, Proc. 1st Inter. Symp. Red Tides, Elsevier, New York: 73-76.
  • Schnepf, E. & G. Deichgraber 1983. 'Myzocytosis', a kind of endocytosis with implications to compartmentation in endosymbiosis. Observations in Paulsenella (Dinophyta). Naturwiss. 71: 218-219.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

D. acuminata reproduces asexually by binary fission. Mackenzie (1991) reported sexual reproduction via the fusion of anisogamous gametes.

  • Mackenzie, L. 1991. Does Dinophysis (Dinophyceae) have a sex life? J. Phycol. 28: 399-406.
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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Toxicity

D. acuminata is a toxic species that has been found to produce okadaic acid (OA) causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Toxicity can vary considerably among seasons and areas where it blooms. This species can cause shellfish toxicity at very low cell concentrations (as low as 200 cells/L). Hoshiai et al. (1997), however, reported a case of nontoxic mussels in Kesennuma Bay, northern Japan, in the presence of high concentrations of D. acuminata cells.

  • Cembella, A.D. 1989. Occurrence of okadaic acid, a major diarrheic shellfish toxin, in natural populations of Dinophysis spp. from the eastern coast of North America. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 307-310.
  • Hoshiai, G.-i., T. Shuzuki, T. Onodera, M. Yamasaki & S. Taguchi 1997. A case of non-toxic mussels under the presence of high concentrations of toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata that occurred in Kesennuma Bay, northern Japan. Fish. Sci. 63: 317-318.
  • Kat, M. 1985. Dinophysis acuminata blooms, the distinct cause of Dutch mussel poisoning. In: D.M. Anderson, A.W. White & D.G. Baden (eds.), Toxic Dinoflagellates, Elsevier, New York: 73-78.
  • Lee, J.-S., T. Igarashi, S. Fraga, E. Dahl, P. Hovgaard & T. Yasumoto 1989. Determination of diarrhetic toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 147-152.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dinophysis acuminata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dinophysis acuminata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Management

Toxicity

D. acuminata is a producer of DSP toxins (okadaic acid)
  • Balech, E (1976). Some Norwegian Dinophysis species (Dinoflagellata). Sarsia, 61:75-94.
  • Dodge JD (1982) Marine Dinoflagellates of the British Isles, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, London
  • Hansen G (1993) Dimoprphic individuals of Dinophysis acuta and Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters. Phycologia 32:73-75
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Wikipedia

Dinophysis acuminata

Dinophysis acuminata is a marine plankton species belonging to the phylum Dinoflagellate that is found in coastal waters of the north Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[1] The Dinophysis genus includes both phototrophic and heterotrophic species. D. acuminata is one of several phototrophic species of Dinophysis classed as toxic, as they produce okadaic acid which can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Okadiac acid is taken up by shellfish and has been found in the soft tissue of mussels and the liver of flounder species. When contaminated animals are consumed, they cause severe diarrhoea. D. acuminata blooms are constant threat to and indication of diarrhoeatic shellfish poisoning outbreaks.[2][3][4]

Dinophysis acuminata is a photosynthesising Dinophysis species by acquiring secondary plastids from consuming the ciliate Myrionecta rubra,[5] which in turn had ingested them from the alga Teleaulax amphioxeia.[6][7] Thus, D. acuminata is a mixotroph, primarily a heterotroph, but autotroph once it acquires plastids. This is also an example of cell organelle stealing, the concept called kleptoplasty, and endosymbiosis.

Description[edit]

Dinophysis acuminata is an oval-shaped protist. It measures 30-35 μm in length and 38-58 μm in diameter. The body is reddish-brown in colour and is covered with an armour-like covering called theca, which is made up of cellulose. The anterior end has a crown-like platform, which is the smaller epitheca; while the posterior is simply rounded constituting a larger hypotheca. The cell has two flagella for locomotion. Reproduction is by simple binnary fission. In lateral view D. acuminata cells are irregularly egg-shaped, dorsally convex and have large hypothecal plates with a more or less oval shape. The dorsal contour is always more strongly convex than the ventral one. Compared to other species of Dinophysis, D. acuminata has a more straight ventral margin and larger left sulcal lists with more prominent ribs. The nucleus is prominently at the centre of the cell. The unusual feature of the cell is that it contains reddish-brown chloroplast.[1]

The taxonomic identification of Dinophysis species is largely based on cell contouring, size and shape of their large hypothecal plates and the shape of their left sulcal lists and ribs. When viewed laterally species in the Dinophysis genus are laterally compressed with a cap-like epitheca and a much larger hypotheca although the size and shape of these species varies greatly due to their polymorphic life cycle. Due to the morphological variability of Dinophysis species identification can be hard, especially when two species (D. acuminata and D. sacculus) co-exist. For this reason the term “D. acuminata complex” was coined to label a group of co-existing species difficult to discriminate.[8]

Feeding and endosymbiosis[edit]

Dinophysis acuminata is basically a heterotroph feeding on the ciliate Myrionecta rubra. M. rubra in turn feeds on green algae that contain plastids. (The endosymbiont is used by the ciliate for its own photosynthesis.)[9] Microscopic observations of live cells using established cultures revealed that D. acuminata uses a peduncle, extending from the flagellar pore, to extract the cell contents of the marine ciliate M. rubra. After about 1 minute the trapped M. rubra becomes immobile after which the D. acuminata slowly consumes the ciliate, over 1-2 hours, filling its vacuoles with the ciliate's cytoplasm.[8] The algal plastids are not destroyed by D. acuminata but use it for its own photosynthesis, thereby becoming an autotroph. However, unlike its prey M. ruba, it is not clear whether D. acuminata uses the plastids permanently or temporarily.[10][11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Setälä, Outi; Autio, Riitta; Kuosa, Harri; Rintala, Janne; Ylöstalo, Pasi (2005). "Survival and photosynthetic activity of different Dinophysis acuminata populations in the northern Baltic Sea". Harmful Algae 4 (2): 337–350. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2004.06.017. ISSN 1568-9883. 
  2. ^ Díaz, Patricio; Reguera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Pazos, Yolanda; Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Berger, Henrick; Sourisseau, Marc (2013). "Climate variability and oceanographic settings associated with interannual variability in the initiation of Dinophysis acuminata blooms". Marine Drugs 11 (8): 2964–2981. doi:10.3390/md11082964. PMC 3766876. PMID 23959151. 
  3. ^ Lee, Ka Jeong; Mok, Jong Soo; Song, Ki Cheol; Yu, Hongsik; Jung, Jee Hyung; Kim, Ji Hoe (2011). "Geographical and annual variation in lipophilic shellfish toxins from oysters and mussels along the south coast of Korea". Journal of Food Protection 74 (12): 2127–2133. doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-148. PMID 22186054. 
  4. ^ Naustvoll, L.-J.; Gustad, E.; Dahl, E. (2012). "Monitoring of Dinophysis species and diarrhetic shellfish toxins in Flødevigen Bay, Norway: inter-annual variability over a 25-year time-series". Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 29 (10): 1605–1615. doi:10.1080/19440049.2012.714908. PMID 22891979. 
  5. ^ Johnson, Matthew D.; Oldach, David; Delwiche, Charles F.; Stoecker, Diane K. (2007). "Retention of transcriptionally active cryptophyte nuclei by the ciliate Myrionecta rubra". Nature 445 (7126): 426–428. doi:10.1038/nature05496. PMID 17251979. 
  6. ^ Janson, Sven (2004). "Molecular evidence that plastids in the toxin-producing dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis originate from the free-living cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia". Environmental Microbiology 6 (10): 1102–1106. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00646.x. PMID 15344936. 
  7. ^ Nishitani, G.; Nagai, S.; Baba, K.; Kiyokawa, S.; Kosaka, Y.; Miyamura, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Sakurada, K.; Shinada, A.; Kamiyama, T. (2010). "High-level congruence of Myrionecta rubra prey and Dinophysis species plastid identities as revealed by genetic analyses of isolates from Japanese coastal waters". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76 (9): 2791–2798. doi:10.1128/AEM.02566-09. PMC 2863437. PMID 20305031. 
  8. ^ a b Raho, Nicolás; Pizarro, Gemita; Escalera, Laura; Reguera, Beatriz; Marín, Irma (2008). "Morphology, toxin composition and molecular analysis of Dinophysis ovum Schütt, a dinoflagellate of the “Dinophysis acuminata complex”". Harmful Algae 7 (6): 839–848. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2008.04.006. ISSN 1568-9883. 
  9. ^ Dorrell, R. G.; Howe, C. J. (2012). "What makes a chloroplast? Reconstructing the establishment of photosynthetic symbioses". Journal of Cell Science 125 (8): 1865–1875. doi:10.1242/jcs.102285. PMID 22547565. 
  10. ^ Takishita, K; Koike, K; Maruyama, T; Ogata, T (2002). "Molecular evidence for plastid robbery (Kleptoplastidy) in Dinophysis, a dinoflagellate causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning". Protist 153 (3): 293–302. doi:10.1078/1434-4610-00106. PMID 12389818. 
  11. ^ Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Hackett, Jeremiah D (2010). "Transcriptome analysis reveals nuclear-encoded proteins for the maintenance of temporary plastids in the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata". BMC Genomics 11 (1): 366. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-366. PMC 3017763. PMID 20537123. 
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