Overview

Brief Summary

Species Overview

Dinophysis tripos is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate species. It is a toxic species common in warm temperate to tropical waters.

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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Comprehensive Description

Dinophysis tripos is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate. Cells are very distinctive thanks to the presence of two posterior projections. The ventral projection is longer than the dorsal one. The projections are often toothed (i.e. they have small spines on the tip). Like other Dinophysis species they have a large hypotheca and a small cap like epitheca. Cells are laterally compressed. The left sulcal list (LSL) is large and often reticulated. D. tripos is a photosynthetic species with chloroplasts (Larsen & Moestrup 1992).
  • Larsen, J. and O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Lee J.S., lgarashi T., Fraga S., Dahl E., Hovgaard P. & Yasumoto T. 1989. Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 147-152.
  • Moita, M.T. and M.A. de M. Sampayo 1993. Are there cysts in the genus Dinophysis? In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu (eds), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 153-157.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Distribution

Tends not to form blooms. Widely distributed around the world though most abundant in warmer regions. Has been identified in both the Mediterranean and the North Sea.
  • Larsen, J. and O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Lee J.S., lgarashi T., Fraga S., Dahl E., Hovgaard P. & Yasumoto T. 1989. Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 147-152.
  • Moita, M.T. and M.A. de M. Sampayo 1993. Are there cysts in the genus Dinophysis? In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu (eds), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 153-157.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Physical Description

Morphology

Morphology and Structure

D. tripos is a photosynthetic species with chloroplasts (Fig. 2). D. diegensis, a smaller form very similar in morphology to D. tripos with a reduced hypothecal process, is suspected to be a gamete of the latter species.

  • Moita, M.T. & M.A. de M. Sampayo 1993. Are there cysts in the genus Dinophysis? In: T.J. Smayda & Y. Shimizu (eds.), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 153-157.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Thecal Plate Description

The small epitheca is made up of four plates. The cingulum is narrow with two well developed lists, anterior cingular list (ACL) and posterior cingular list (PCL), oriented anteriorly (Figs. 1-4). The ACL is supported by many ribs (Figs. 1, 4). The wide ACL forms a narrow, funnel-like structure obscuring the epitheca on the bottom. The sulcus is comprised of several irregularly shaped plates. The flagellar pore is housed in the sulcal area. The prominent wide LSL has a straight margin and is supported by three ribs (Figs. 1-4). The hypotheca, with four large plates, comprises the majority of the cell. It is long, narrowing into two tapered or pointed posterior projections: one short and dorsal, and one longer and ventral (Figs. 1-3). The dorsal projection is sometimes seen with a narrow list connecting two daughter cells during cell division (Fig. 3). The ventral margin of the hypotheca is straight or slightly undulate. The dorsal margin is concave below the cingulum and then convex continuing down to the dorsal projection (Figs. 1, 2).

  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed.), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Taxonomic Description

Species in this genus are laterally compressed with a small, cap-like epitheca and a much larger hypotheca dorso-ventral depth of epitheca is 1/3 to 1/2 hypotheca. The shape of the cell in lateral view is the most important criterion used for identification.

D. tripos is a very distinctive species. Cells are large, anterio-posteriorly elongated and asymmetrical with two posterior hypothecal projections; a longer ventral process and a shorter dorsal one (Figs. 1-4). The V-shaped processes are often toothed on their posterior ends (small knob-like spines) (Fig. 1). The well developed left sucal list (LSL) widens posteriorly and is often reticulated (Figs. 1-3).

The thick thecal plates are heavily areolated (Fig. 1). Cell size ranges: 90-125 µm in length and 50-60 µm in dorso-ventral width.

  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed.), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Type Information

Type locality: Mediterranean Sea: Gulf of Marseille, France
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Look Alikes

Species Comparison

Dinophysis tripos can be confused with D. caudata; some cells of D. caudata, bearing a short hypothecal process, can superficially resemble D. tripos. However, D. tripos can be distinguished by the presence of two posterior projections.

  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed.), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Locality

D. tripos is widely distributed in tropical and temperate waters, and occasionally is found in colder regions.

  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed.), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Depth range based on 630 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 177 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 470
  Temperature range (°C): 12.759 - 20.934
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.717 - 8.908
  Salinity (PPS): 34.812 - 37.775
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.709 - 6.124
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.210 - 1.452
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.595 - 9.519

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 470

Temperature range (°C): 12.759 - 20.934

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.717 - 8.908

Salinity (PPS): 34.812 - 37.775

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.709 - 6.124

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.210 - 1.452

Silicate (umol/l): 1.595 - 9.519
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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General Ecology

Ecology

Dinophysis tripos is a planktonic species commonly found in neritic, estuarine and oceanic waters. No blooms for this species have been reported .

  • Larsen, J. & O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed.), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

D. tripos reproduces asexually by binary fission. Moita and Sampayo (1993) speculate that sexual reproduction, with sexual dimorphism, is part of the life cycle for this species.

  • Moita, M.T. & M.A. de M. Sampayo 1993. Are there cysts in the genus Dinophysis? In: T.J. Smayda & Y. Shimizu (eds.), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 153-157.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Toxicity

D. tripos is associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) events; it produces Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1).

  • Lee, J.-S., T. Igarashi, S. Fraga, E. Dahl, P. Hovgaard & T. Yasumoto 1989. Determination of diarrhetic toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 147-152.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dinophysis tripos

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dinophysis tripos

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Management

Toxicity

Producer of dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) (Lee et al. 1989).
  • Larsen, J. and O. Moestrup 1992. Potentially toxic phytoplankton. 2. Genus Dinophysis (Dinophyceae). In: J.A. Lindley (ed), ICES Identification Leaflets for Plankton. ICES, Copenhagen, 180: 1-12.
  • Lee J.S., lgarashi T., Fraga S., Dahl E., Hovgaard P. & Yasumoto T. 1989. Determination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins in various dinoflagellate species. J. Appl. Phycol. 1: 147-152.
  • Moita, M.T. and M.A. de M. Sampayo 1993. Are there cysts in the genus Dinophysis? In: T.J. Smayda and Y. Shimizu (eds), Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 153-157.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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