The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Alonso-Rodríguez, R. & Páez-Osuna, F. 2003. Nutrients, phytoplankton and harmful algal blooms in shrimp ponds: a review with special reference to the situation in the Gulf of California. Aquaculture. 219: 317-336 p.
  • Anderson D. M., Jacobson, D. M., I. Bravo & Wrenn, J. H. 1988. The unique microreticulate cyst of the naked dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum. J. Phycol. 24: 255-262 p.
  • Balech, E. 1964. El plancton de Mar del Plata durante el período 1961-1962.) Bol. Inst. Biología Marina. U. Nat. Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, 4:1-49.
  • Balech, Enrique. 1988. Los Dinoflagelados del Atlantico Sudoccidental. Publicaciones Especiales Instituto Español de Oceanografia no. 1. 310
  • Band-Schmidt, C. J., Morquecho, L., Lechuga-Devéze, C. H., & Anderson, D. M. 2004. Effects of growth medium, temperature, salinity and seawater source on the growth of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from Bahía Concepción, Gulf of California, Mexico. Journal of Plankton Research. 26(12): 1459-1470 p.
  • Blackburn, S. I., Hallegraeff, G. & Bolch, C. 1989. Vegetative reproduction an dsexual life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum from Tasmania, Australia. J. Phycol. 25: 577-590.
  • Bolch, C. J. & Hallegraeff, G. M. 1990. Dinoflagellate cysts in Recent marine sediments from Tasmania, Australia. Bot. Mar. 33: 173-192
  • Bolch, C. J. S. & De Salas, M. F. 2007. A review of the molecular evidence for ballast water introduction of the toxic dinoflagellates Gymnodinium catenatum and the Alexandrium "tamarensis complex" to Australasia. Harmful Algae, 6 (4): 465-485.
  • Bolch, C.J., Negri, A. & Hallegraeff, G. M. 1999. Gymnodinium microreticulatum sp. nov. (Dinophyceae): a naked, microreticulate cyst producing dinoflagellate, distinct from Gymnodinium catenatum Graham and Gymnodinium nolleri Ellegaard et Moestrup. Phycologia, (38):301-313.
  • Cangelosi, A. A., Mays, N. L., Balcer, M. D., Reavie, E. D., Reid, D. M., Sturtevant, R. & Gao, X. Q. 2007. The response of zooplankton and phytoplankton from the North American Great Lakes to filtration. Harmful Algae, 6(4):547-566.
  • Carreto, J. I., G., M. N. & O. C. M. 1999. Floraciones de algas tóxicas. Atlas de sensibilidad ambiental de la costa y el Mar Argentino Argentina
  • Cortés, L. M. C., Altamarino, C. R., Sierra-Beltrán, A. P. 2004. Presencia de Cochlodinium catenatum (Gymnodiniales: Gymnodiniaceae) en mareas rojas de Bahía de Banderas, Pacífico mexicano. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52 (Suppl. 1) : 35-49.
  • Dale, B., Madsen, A., Nordberg, K. & Thorsen, T.A. 1993. Evidence for prehistoric "blooms" of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum in the Kattegat-Skagerrak region of Scandinavia. Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. ed. by Smayda TJ, Shimizu Y. New York, USA: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V, 47-52.
  • Ellegaard, M. &Oshima, Y. 1998. Gymnodinium nolleri Ellegaard et Moestrup sp. ined. (Dinophyceae) from Danish waters, a new species producing Gymnodinium catenatum-like cysts: molecular and toxicological comparisons with Australian and Spanish strains of Gymnodinium catenatum. Phycologia, (37):369-378.
  • Estrada, M., Sánchez, F. J. & Fraga, S. 1984. Gymnodinium catenatum Graham en las rías gallegas (No de España). Inv. Pesq. 48: 31-40
  • FAO. 2005. Biotoxinas marinas. Organización de las Naciones Unidas para La Agricultura y la Alimentación.
  • GISD (Global Invasive Species Database). 2005. Gymnodinium catenatum. UICN. Consultado el 03 de noviembre 2011 en
  • Garate-Lizárraga, I., Bustillos-Guzman, J. J., Erler, K., Muñetón-Gómez, M. S., Luckas, B., &Tripp-Quezada, A. 2004. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the chocolata clam , Megapitaria squalida (Bivavlvia: Veneridae), in Bahía de la Paz, Gulf of California. Revista de Biología Tropical 52 (Suppl. 1): 133-140.
  • Graham, H. W. 1943. Gymnodinium catenatum, a new dinoflagellata from the Gulf of California. 62: 259-261. Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc.
  • Graham, H. W. 1943. Gymnodinium catenatum, a new dinoflagellate from the Gulf of California. Trans Amer. Microscop. Soc. 62:259-261.
  • Gregg, M. D. & Hallegraeff, G. M. 2007. Efficacy of three commercially available ballast water biocides against vegetative microalgae, dinoflagellate cysts and bacteria. Harmful Algae, 6(4):567-584.
  • Hallegraeff, G. M. & Bolch, C. J. 1992. Transport of dinoflagellate cysts in ship's ballast water: Implications for plankton biogeography and aquaculture. J. Plankton Res, (14):1067-1084.
  • Hallegraeff, G. M., McCausland, M. A. & Brown, R. K. 1995. Early warning of toxic dinoflagellate blooms of Gymnodinium catenatum in southern Tasmanian waters. J. Plankton Res, (17):1163-1176.
  • Hallegraeff, G. M., Stanley, S. O., Bolch, C. J. & Blackburn, S. I. 1989. Gymnodinium catenatum blooms and shellfish toxicity in Southern Tasmania, Australia. Red Tides: Biology, Envionmental Science and Toxicology. New York, USA. Elsevier Science Publishers BV, 77-80. ed. by Okaichi, T., Anderson, D. M. & Nemoto, T.
  • Hoagland, P., Anderson, D. M. &White, A. W. 2002. Econommic effects of Harmful algal blooms in the United States: Estimates,, assessment Issues, and information needs. Estuaries, (25):819-837.
  • ISC (Invasive Species Compendium). 2011. Gymnodinium catenatum . Consultado el 03 de noviembre 2011 en Edition. © CAB International, Wallingford, UK
  • Lassus P. 1988. Plancton toxique et plancton d´eaux rouges sur les cotes europèennes. INREMER. France. 111
  • Licea, S., Moreno, J. L., Santoyo, H. & Figueroa, G. 1995. Dinoflagelados del Golfo de California. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur. México. 165
  • Lu, S. & Hodgkiss, I. J. 2004. Harmful algal bloom causative collected from Hong Kong waters. Hydrobiologia. 512 (1-3): 231-238.
  • Matsuoka, K., Fujii, R., Hayashi. M. & Wang Z,. 2006. Recent occurrence of toxic Gymnodinium catenatum Graham (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) in coastal sediments of West Japan. Paleontological Research, 10:117-125.
  • Mee L. D., Díaz-González, G. & Espinoza, D. M. 1986. Paralitic schellfish poisoning with Gymnodinium catenatum red tide on the pacific coast of Mexico. Mar. Environ. Res. 19: 77-92
  • Morquecho, L., & Lechuga-Devéze, C. H. 2004. Seasonal occurrence of planktonic dinoflagellates and cyst production in relationship to environmental variables in subtropical Bahía Concepción, Gulf of California. Botanica Marina 47: 313-322.
  • NIMPIS. 2002. Gymnodinium catenatum species summary. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System. Web publication. Eds: Hewitt, C. L., Martin, R. B., Sliwa, C., McEnnulty, F. R., Murphy, N. E., ones, T. & Cooper, S.
  • National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (NIMPIS). 2002. Gymnodinium catenatum identification details. Eds. Hewitt, C. L., Martin, R. B., Sliwa, C., McEnnulty, F. R., Murphy, N. E., Jones, T. & Cooper, S. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System. Web publication. Consultado el 02 de noviembre 2011
  • Patil, J.G., Deagle, B.E., Gunasekera, R.M., Bax, N.J. and Hewitt, C.L. 2003. Molecular detection techniques for monitering three key pest species in ballast water samples. In Abstracts: Third International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, March 16-19, 2003. Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California
  • Steidinger, Karen A. and Karl Tangen / Carmelo R. Tomas ed. 1997. Dinoflagellates. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. 387-584


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!