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BiologyPtarmigans feed on berries, shoots, leaves and seeds (6). When the ground is covered in snow they seek out areas where the wind has cleared the ground (4). During autumn, male birds become territorial, and engage in song flights, producing a belching croak. Hens pair with males at this time, but they tend to live in flocks through the autumn and early winter as well as when there has been a snow fall (4). Roosting occurs on the ground in flocks during winter, and if it has snowed, individuals huddle in a depression scraped in the snow (4). Nesting also takes place on the ground, typically next to a large rock for shelter. Females incubate 7-10 eggs for around 21 days, and the chicks can leave the nest after just one day. The chicks feed on invertebrates and reach independence after 10 to 12 weeks (5).