Overview

Comprehensive Description

Alexandrium monilatum is an armoured, marine, dinoflagellate that forms chains of 16+ individuals. Cells are much wider than they are long and anterior-posteriorly compressed. Thecal plates are delicate with numerous small pores. The Sulcus contains a distinguishing large rhomboid posterior sulcal plate (s.p.). The s.p. is recessed and is marked (see fig. 3.) and contains the attachment pore (pap) for chain formation. It is photosynthetic with dark green/brown chloroplasts. The nucleus is crescent moon shaped and located at the centre of the cell. This species produces resting cysts as part of it?s life cycle (Walker & Steindinger 1979).
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Perry, H.M., Stuck, K.C. & Howse, H.D. (1979). First record of a bloom of Gonyaulax monilata in coastal waters of Mississippi, Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 313?316.
  • Walker, L.M. & Steidinger, K.A. (1979). Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
  • Balech, E. (1995). The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Streftaris N., Zenetos A. & Papathanassiou E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems ? the story of non indigenous marine species across European Seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 419?453.
  • Hsia, M., S. Morton, L. Smith, K. Beauchesne, K. Huncik & P. Moeller. (2006). Production of goniodomin A by the planktonic, chainforming dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum (Howell) Balelch isolated from the Gulf Coast of the United States. Harmful Algae 5:290?299
  • Montero, M.V., Bustamante, E.F., Guzman, J.C., & Vargas, J.C. (2008). Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Hidrobiologica 18:15-23.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Distribution

This species tends to survive best in warmer waters and is most common in north and South America (Perry et al. 1979; Hsia et al. 2006; Montero et al. 2008) however it is spreading and has recently been reported in the Black Sea (Streftaris et al. 2005).
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Perry, H.M., Stuck, K.C. & Howse, H.D. (1979). First record of a bloom of Gonyaulax monilata in coastal waters of Mississippi, Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 313?316.
  • Walker, L.M. & Steidinger, K.A. (1979). Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
  • Balech, E. (1995). The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Streftaris N., Zenetos A. & Papathanassiou E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems ? the story of non indigenous marine species across European Seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 419?453.
  • Hsia, M., S. Morton, L. Smith, K. Beauchesne, K. Huncik & P. Moeller. (2006). Production of goniodomin A by the planktonic, chainforming dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum (Howell) Balelch isolated from the Gulf Coast of the United States. Harmful Algae 5:290?299
  • Montero, M.V., Bustamante, E.F., Guzman, J.C., & Vargas, J.C. (2008). Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Hidrobiologica 18:15-23.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 88 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0.9
  Temperature range (°C): 20.934 - 24.625
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.640 - 3.686
  Salinity (PPS): 32.493 - 35.145
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.855 - 5.355
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.359 - 0.832
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.075 - 3.819

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 0.9

Temperature range (°C): 20.934 - 24.625

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.640 - 3.686

Salinity (PPS): 32.493 - 35.145

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.855 - 5.355

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.359 - 0.832

Silicate (umol/l): 3.075 - 3.819
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Conservation

Management

Toxicity

This species is highly toxic via the secretion of goniodomin A (Hsia et al. 2006).
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Perry, H.M., Stuck, K.C. & Howse, H.D. (1979). First record of a bloom of Gonyaulax monilata in coastal waters of Mississippi, Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 313?316.
  • Walker, L.M. & Steidinger, K.A. (1979). Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
  • Balech, E. (1995). The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Streftaris N., Zenetos A. & Papathanassiou E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems ? the story of non indigenous marine species across European Seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 419?453.
  • Hsia, M., S. Morton, L. Smith, K. Beauchesne, K. Huncik & P. Moeller. (2006). Production of goniodomin A by the planktonic, chainforming dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum (Howell) Balelch isolated from the Gulf Coast of the United States. Harmful Algae 5:290?299
  • Montero, M.V., Bustamante, E.F., Guzman, J.C., & Vargas, J.C. (2008). Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Hidrobiologica 18:15-23.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Wikipedia

Alexandrium monilatum

Alexandrium monilatum is an armored, photosynthetic, marine dinoflagellate. It produces toxins that, when present in high concentrations as "red tides", can kill fish and reduce growth rates of shellfish.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Alexandrium monilatum is a planktonic species found in tropical to warm temperate coastal seas and estuaries of the Americas. The species description is based on material from the Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic Coast of Florida.[1]

Description[edit]

Alexandrium monilatum are armored or thecate dinoflagellates with an outer cell wall covered with cellulose plates. A. monilatum is wider at the cingulum or equatorial girdle than it is tall, and it commonly joins into chains of from two to sixteen individuals, with chains as long as 32 cells in calm seas. The cingulum or groove half way between the top and bottom of the organism's single cell is where the pair of flagella are situated. To form chains, A. monilatum cells exude a glue from the apical or top attachment pore of one individual to make it adhere to the antapical or bottom attachment pore of the next individual in the chain. Organisms produced in laboratory cultures do not usually form chains. The nucleus is located in the center of the cell, and A. minilatum's many chloroplasts radiate outward from the nucleus.[1][2] A bioluminescent strain of A. monilatum has been identified from Mississippi Sound in the Gulf of Mexico.[3]

Life cycle[edit]

A. monilatum reproduces both asexually and sexually. Asexual reproduction is by binary fission. Though less common than fission, A. monilatum also reproduces sexually. This takes place when a zygote is formed by the fusing of the two isogametes and resting cysts may be formed.[2]

Toxicity[edit]

Like other dinoflagellates, Alexandrium monilatum has wide swings in population size.[1] When concentrations rise, algal blooms occur and fish can be killed by the ichthyotoxin, goniodomin A identified in both A. monilatum and A. pseudogoniaulax. Secondary toxic substances produced by this species include saxitoxins and gonyautoxins.[2][4] Toxic red tides caused by this species have caused large fish kills off the coasts of Texas, Florida and Venezuela.[2] This dinoflagellate does not cause mortality in adult shellfish but does reduce nutritional uptake as well as increasing mortality in larvae.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Hargraves, P. E. (2011). "Alexandrium monilatum". Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Alexandrium monilatum". Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  3. ^ Latz, MI; M Bovard, V VanDelinder, E Segre, J Rohr, and A Groisman (September 2008). "Bioluminescent response of individual dinoflagellate cells to hydrodynamic stress measured with millisecond resolution in a microfluidic device". The Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 2865–2875. doi:10.1242/jeb.011890. Retrieved 14 October 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Maya, Susan P.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Shumway, Sandra E.; Hégaret, Hélène; Wikfors, Gary H.; Frank, Dana (2010). "Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum on survival, grazing and behavioral response of three ecologically important bivalve molluscs". Harmful Algae 9 (3): 281–293. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2009.11.005. 

Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Taxon name". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. 

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