Overview

Brief Summary

Species Overview

Alexandrium monilatum is an armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate. It is a coastal warm water species associated with toxic red tides and massive fish and shellfish kills.

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Comprehensive Description

Alexandrium monilatum is an armoured, marine, dinoflagellate that forms chains of 16+ individuals. Cells are much wider than they are long and anterior-posteriorly compressed. Thecal plates are delicate with numerous small pores. The Sulcus contains a distinguishing large rhomboid posterior sulcal plate (s.p.). The s.p. is recessed and is marked (see fig. 3.) and contains the attachment pore (pap) for chain formation. It is photosynthetic with dark green/brown chloroplasts. The nucleus is crescent moon shaped and located at the centre of the cell. This species produces resting cysts as part of it?s life cycle (Walker & Steindinger 1979).
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Perry, H.M., Stuck, K.C. & Howse, H.D. (1979). First record of a bloom of Gonyaulax monilata in coastal waters of Mississippi, Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 313?316.
  • Walker, L.M. & Steidinger, K.A. (1979). Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
  • Balech, E. (1995). The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Streftaris N., Zenetos A. & Papathanassiou E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems ? the story of non indigenous marine species across European Seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 419?453.
  • Hsia, M., S. Morton, L. Smith, K. Beauchesne, K. Huncik & P. Moeller. (2006). Production of goniodomin A by the planktonic, chainforming dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum (Howell) Balelch isolated from the Gulf Coast of the United States. Harmful Algae 5:290?299
  • Montero, M.V., Bustamante, E.F., Guzman, J.C., & Vargas, J.C. (2008). Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Hidrobiologica 18:15-23.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Distribution

This species tends to survive best in warmer waters and is most common in north and South America (Perry et al. 1979; Hsia et al. 2006; Montero et al. 2008) however it is spreading and has recently been reported in the Black Sea (Streftaris et al. 2005).
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Perry, H.M., Stuck, K.C. & Howse, H.D. (1979). First record of a bloom of Gonyaulax monilata in coastal waters of Mississippi, Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 313?316.
  • Walker, L.M. & Steidinger, K.A. (1979). Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
  • Balech, E. (1995). The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Streftaris N., Zenetos A. & Papathanassiou E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems ? the story of non indigenous marine species across European Seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 419?453.
  • Hsia, M., S. Morton, L. Smith, K. Beauchesne, K. Huncik & P. Moeller. (2006). Production of goniodomin A by the planktonic, chainforming dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum (Howell) Balelch isolated from the Gulf Coast of the United States. Harmful Algae 5:290?299
  • Montero, M.V., Bustamante, E.F., Guzman, J.C., & Vargas, J.C. (2008). Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Hidrobiologica 18:15-23.
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© University of Liverpool

Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Physical Description

Morphology

Morphology and Structure

Alexandrium monilatum is a photosynthetic species with central radiating brownish chloroplasts. The quarter-moon shaped nucleus is equatorial.

  • Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Thecal Plate Description

The plate formula for Alexandrium monilatum is: Po, 4', 6'', 6c, 10s, 5''', 2''''. The large apical pore complex (APC) is broadly triangular and slightly curving posteriorly. The large apical pore plate (Po) is ovate with a small comma-shaped foramen (Fig. 3). The anterior attachment pore (aap) is large and round (Fig. 3). Small pores are present along the margin of the Po. The characteristic first apical plate (1') is not connected to the Po; it is short and broadly pentagonal (Figs. 2, 3). The 1' plate is typically without a ventral-pore, however, specimens from Florida reveal a pore at the juncture where the 1', 2' and 4' plates meet (Fig. 2).

The epitheca and hypotheca are nearly equal. The antapex is slightly concave. The median cingulum is deeply excavated, devoid of lists, and is displaced in a descending fashion one time its width (Fig. 2). The sulcus bears a diagnostic feature: a large and rhomboid-shaped posterior sulcal plate (s.p.) (Fig. 4). The s.p. is concave and recessed with radial markings, and contains a large central posterior attachment pore (pap) (Fig. 4).

  • Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Taxonomic Description

A very distinctive chain-forming species, Alexandrium monilatum typically occurs in long chains of 16 or more cells. Single cells are medium to large, wider than long, and flattened anterio-posteriorly (Figs. 1, 2). Epithecal shoulders are occasionally observed. Thecal plates are thin with many delicate pores. Cells range in size between 28-52 µm in length and 33-60 µm in transdiameter width.

  • Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Steidinger, K.A. & K. Tangen 1996. Dinoflagellates. In: C.R. Tomas (ed.), Identifying Marine Diatoms and Dinoflagellates, Academic Press, New York: 387-598.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Y. Fukuyo & J. Larsen 1995. Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson & A.D. Cembella (eds.), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Locality

Alexandrium monilatum is a warm water species known from subtropical and tropical regions of the Atlantic Ocean: east coast of Florida, Venezuela in the Caribbean Sea, and Texas in the Gulf of Mexico. Populations have also been reported from the tropical Pacific Ocean off Ecuador, and surprisingly in the Chesapeake Bay.

  • Balech, E. 1995. The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Connell, C.H. & J.B. Cross 1950. Mass mortality of fish associated with the protozoan Gonyaulax in the Gulf of Mexico. Science 112: 359.
  • Günter, G. 1942. Recurrent summer fish mortalities on the Texas coast. Am. Midl. Nat. 28: 631.
  • Halim, Y. 1967. Dinoflagellates of the South-East Caribbean Sea (East Venezuela). Int. Rev. ges. Hydrobiol. 52: 701-755.
  • Howell, J.F. 1953. Gonyaulax monilata sp. nov. the causative dinoflagellate of a red tide in the east coast of Florida in August-September 1951. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 72: 153-156.
  • Morse, D.C. 1947. Some observations on seasonal variations in plankton populations, Patuxent River, Maryland, 1943-1945. Chesapeake Biol. Lab., Publ. No. 65: 1-31.
  • Ray, S.M. & D.V. Aldrich 1967. Ecological interactions of toxic dinoflagellates and molluscs in the Gulf of Mexico. In: Russell, F.E. & P.R. Saunders (eds.), Animal Toxins, First International Symposium on Animal Toxins, Pergamon Press, New York: 75-83.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Depth range based on 88 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 11 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0.9
  Temperature range (°C): 20.934 - 24.625
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.640 - 3.686
  Salinity (PPS): 32.493 - 35.145
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.855 - 5.355
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.359 - 0.832
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.075 - 3.819

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 0.9

Temperature range (°C): 20.934 - 24.625

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.640 - 3.686

Salinity (PPS): 32.493 - 35.145

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.855 - 5.355

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.359 - 0.832

Silicate (umol/l): 3.075 - 3.819
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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General Ecology

Ecology

Alexandrium monilatum is a planktonic estuarine dinoflagellate species associated with toxic red tides and massive fish mortality events in warm coastal waters off Florida, Texas and Venezuela. Offshore coastal water blooms have also been reported in Florida and Texas. One reported red tide from Texas had cell concentrations ranging from 5 X 105 cells/L to 10 X 105 cells/L .

This species produces a dark colored resting cyst as part of its life cycle. The cyst is smooth and round to ovoid. Cysts range in size from 60 to 87 µm in diameter (Fig. 6).

  • Gates, J.A. & W.B. Wilson 1960. The toxicity of Gonyaulax monilata Howell to Mugil cephalus. Limnol. Oceanogr. 5: 171-174.
  • Howell, J.F. 1953. Gonyaulax monilata sp. nov. the causative dinoflagellate of a red tide in the east coast of Florida in August-September 1951. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 72: 153-156.
  • Ray, S.M. & D.V. Aldrich 1967. Ecological interactions of toxic dinoflagellates and molluscs in the Gulf of Mexico. In: Russell, F.E. & P.R. Saunders (eds.), Animal Toxins, First International Symposium on Animal Toxins, Pergamon Press, New York: 75-83.
  • Walker, L.M. & K.A. Steidinger 1979. Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
  • Wardle, W.J., S.M. Ray & A.S. Aldrich 1975. Mortality of marine organisms associated with offshore summer blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata Howell at Galveston, Texas. In: LoCicero, V.R. (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, The Mass. Sci. Technol. Found., MA: 257-263.
  • Williams, J. & R.M. Ingle 1972. Ecological notes on Gonyaulax monilata (Dinophyceae). Blooms along the west coast of Florida. Fla. Dep. Nat. Res. Mar. Res. Lab. Leaflet Ser. 1: 1-12.
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Source: Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Department of Botany

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Alexandrium monilatum reproduces asexually by binary fission; plane of fission is oblique. This species also has a sexual cycle with armoured isogamous gametes that fuse with cingula at oblique angles (Fig. 5). Gametes range in size from 36 X 36 µm to 47 X 56 µm. After fusion, a planozygote forms which then encysts into a characteristic resting cyst (Fig. 6).

  • Walker, L.M. & K.A. Steidinger 1979. Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
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Physiology and Cell Biology

Physiology

Toxicity

Alexandrium monilatum produces a strong ichthyotoxin resulting in a paralyzing effect. From laboratory culture studies, Schmidt and Loeblich (1979) report production of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxins: saxitoxin (STX) and gonyautoxins (GTX); the toxins are hemolytic and neurotoxic. The toxins produced from this species do not accumulate in shellfish (molluscs do not feed on this species) and it is not toxic to birds. Massive fish kills have been reported from Texas bays in the Gulf of Mexico and on the east coast of Florida in the Atlantic Ocean.

  • Bass, E.L. & B.W. Kuvshinoff 1982. Evidence for a neuroactive component in the toxic extract from Gonyaulax monilata. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 75C: 131.
  • Clemons, G.P., J.P. Pinion, E. Bass, D.V. Pham, M. Sharif & J.G. Wutoh 1980. A hemolytic principle associated with the red-tide dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. Toxicon 18: 323.
  • Connell, C.H. & J.B. Cross 1950. Mass mortality of fish associated with the protozoan Gonyaulax in the Gulf of Mexico. Science 112: 359.
  • Gates, J.A. & W.B. Wilson 1960. The toxicity of Gonyaulax monilata Howell to Mugil cephalus. Limnol. Oceanogr. 5: 171-174.
  • Günter, G. 1942. Recurrent summer fish mortalities on the Texas coast. Am. Midl. Nat. 28: 631.
  • Howell, J.F. 1953. Gonyaulax monilata sp. nov. the causative dinoflagellate of a red tide in the east coast of Florida in August-September 1951. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 72: 153-156.
  • Ray, S.M. & D.V. Aldrich 1967. Ecological interactions of toxic dinoflagellates and molluscs in the Gulf of Mexico. In: Russell, F.E. & P.R. Saunders (eds.), Animal Toxins, First International Symposium on Animal Toxins, Pergamon Press, New York: 75-83.
  • Schmidt, R.J. & A.R. Loeblich, III 1979. Distribution of paralytic shellfish poison among Pyrrhophyta. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 59: 479-487.
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Conservation

Management

Toxicity

This species is highly toxic via the secretion of goniodomin A (Hsia et al. 2006).
  • Tomas C ed. (1997). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp 598. Academic Press Ltd. London
  • Perry, H.M., Stuck, K.C. & Howse, H.D. (1979). First record of a bloom of Gonyaulax monilata in coastal waters of Mississippi, Gulf Res. Rep. 6: 313?316.
  • Walker, L.M. & Steidinger, K.A. (1979). Sexual reproduction in the toxic dinoflagellate Gonyaulax monilata. J. Phycol. 15: 312-315.
  • Balech, E. (1995). The Genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata), Sherkin Island Marine Station, Ireland. 151 pp.
  • Taylor, F.J.R., Fukuyo, Y. & Larsen, J. (1995). Taxonomy of harmful dinoflagellates. In: G.M. Hallegraeff, D.M. Anderson and A.D. Cembella (eds), Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae, IOC Manuals and Guides No. 33. UNESCO, France: 283-317.
  • Streftaris N., Zenetos A. & Papathanassiou E. (2005). Globalisation in marine ecosystems ? the story of non indigenous marine species across European Seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 419?453.
  • Hsia, M., S. Morton, L. Smith, K. Beauchesne, K. Huncik & P. Moeller. (2006). Production of goniodomin A by the planktonic, chainforming dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum (Howell) Balelch isolated from the Gulf Coast of the United States. Harmful Algae 5:290?299
  • Montero, M.V., Bustamante, E.F., Guzman, J.C., & Vargas, J.C. (2008). Harmful blooms by noxious dinoflagellates in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Hidrobiologica 18:15-23.
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Source: Harmful Phytoplankton Project

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Wikipedia

Alexandrium monilatum

Alexandrium monilatum is an armored, photosynthetic, marine dinoflagellate. It produces toxins that, when present in high concentrations as "red tides", can kill fish and reduce growth rates of shellfish.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Alexandrium monilatum is a planktonic species found in tropical to warm temperate coastal seas and estuaries of the Americas. The species description is based on material from the Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic Coast of Florida.[1]

Description[edit]

Alexandrium monilatum are armored or thecate dinoflagellates with an outer cell wall covered with cellulose plates. A. monilatum is wider at the cingulum or equatorial girdle than it is tall, and it commonly joins into chains of from two to sixteen individuals, with chains as long as 32 cells in calm seas. The cingulum or groove half way between the top and bottom of the organism's single cell is where the pair of flagella are situated. To form chains, A. monilatum cells exude a glue from the apical or top attachment pore of one individual to make it adhere to the antapical or bottom attachment pore of the next individual in the chain. Organisms produced in laboratory cultures do not usually form chains. The nucleus is located in the center of the cell, and A. minilatum's many chloroplasts radiate outward from the nucleus.[1][2] A bioluminescent strain of A. monilatum has been identified from Mississippi Sound in the Gulf of Mexico.[3]

Life cycle[edit]

A. monilatum reproduces both asexually and sexually. Asexual reproduction is by binary fission. Though less common than fission, A. monilatum also reproduces sexually. This takes place when a zygote is formed by the fusing of the two isogametes and resting cysts may be formed.[2]

Toxicity[edit]

Like other dinoflagellates, Alexandrium monilatum has wide swings in population size.[1] When concentrations rise, algal blooms occur and fish can be killed by the ichthyotoxin, goniodomin A identified in both A. monilatum and A. pseudogoniaulax. Secondary toxic substances produced by this species include saxitoxins and gonyautoxins.[2][4] Toxic red tides caused by this species have caused large fish kills off the coasts of Texas, Florida and Venezuela.[2] This dinoflagellate does not cause mortality in adult shellfish but does reduce nutritional uptake as well as increasing mortality in larvae.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Hargraves, P. E. (2011). "Alexandrium monilatum". Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Alexandrium monilatum". Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  3. ^ Latz, MI; M Bovard; V VanDelinder; E Segre; J Rohr; A Groisman (September 2008). "Bioluminescent response of individual dinoflagellate cells to hydrodynamic stress measured with millisecond resolution in a microfluidic device". The Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 2865–2875. doi:10.1242/jeb.011890. Retrieved 14 October 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Maya, Susan P.; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Shumway, Sandra E.; Hégaret, Hélène; Wikfors, Gary H.; Frank, Dana (2010). "Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium monilatum on survival, grazing and behavioral response of three ecologically important bivalve molluscs". Harmful Algae 9 (3): 281–293. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2009.11.005. 

Guiry, M.D.; Guiry, G.M. (2008). "Taxon name". AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. 

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