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Overview

Comprehensive Description

The peacock's tail, Padina pavonica, is a brown macroalga found throughout the Indian River Lagoon (see "IRL Distribution" below).The thallus, or body, of the alga is brown to tan, forming fan-shaped clusters. Each blade is calcified, more heavily above and lightly below, and curls inward near the edges. Both the upper and lower blade surfaces bear minute surface hairs arranged in a series of bands approximately 1.5 to 6 mm apart (Taylor 1979; Littler & Littler 2000; Littler et al. 2008). The blades attach to the substratum via a holdfast, which is often matted.
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
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© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Description

 The frond is thin and leafy, flattish and entire when young, but often concave, or almost funnel shaped in mature specimens, with a lactiniate or irregularly lobed margin. The inner (or upper) surface is covered in a thin coating of slime, and the outer (or lower) surface is banded with zones of light brown, dark brown and olive green. Small, fine hairs form concentric lines, 3-5 mm apart, from the outer margin continuing down the outer (coloured) surface of the fronds.This species is recorded as Padina parvonia in some texts, and may also be referred to as turkey-feather algae.
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©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

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Distribution

The range of P. pavonica extends throughout the world in warm temperate to tropical locales, including: North Carolina to Florida in the United States; the Gulf of Mexico; throughout the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic (Taylor 1979; Littler & Littler 2000; Littler et al. 2008); and the Eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas (Orlando-Bonaca et al. 2008). Clusters are commonly attached to shell fragments and rocks from the lower intertidal zone down to 20 m (Taylor 1979), in seagrass beds and coral reefs, on tidal flats, and attached to mangrove prop roots (Littler & Littler 2000).Indian River Lagoon (India River Lagoon) Distribution: In the Indian River Lagoon, P. pavonica is usually found from the Fort Pierce Inlet in St. Lucie County south throughout Martin County (Littler et al. 2008). Most clusters are attached to pebbles or shell fragments around tidal flats, either on sandy bottoms or in seagrass beds, and on prop roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle (Littler et al. 2008).
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Physical Description

Size

P. pavonica can occur as small clusters or as mats covering several centimeters (e.g. Littler & Littler 2000). Individuals reach dimensions of 22 cm high x 37 cm wide, with each blade measuring up to 12 cm wide (Littler & Littler 2000; Littler et al. 2008). Little information exists concerning factors that affect age and lifespan of P. pavonica. However, growth and mortality of populations is likely tied to nutrient levels, temperature, salinity and predator abundance. Reproduction &
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Look Alikes

Several species within the genus Padina appear quite similar and may be misidentified. However, only one other species, P. gymnospora, is commonly recorded within the IRL (Littler et al. 2008). The thallus of P. gymnospora is similar in size and color to P. pavonica. However, the blades of P. gymnospora are more elongate and leaf-like, and clusters are more likely to be found attached to surfaces like jetties or seawalls that are exposed to moderate wave action (Littler et al. 2008).
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 263 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 132 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.2 - 30
  Temperature range (°C): 16.269 - 17.417
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.211 - 1.692
  Salinity (PPS): 37.926 - 38.044
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.382 - 5.513
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 0.229
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.247 - 2.254

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.2 - 30

Temperature range (°C): 16.269 - 17.417

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.211 - 1.692

Salinity (PPS): 37.926 - 38.044

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.382 - 5.513

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.131 - 0.229

Silicate (umol/l): 1.247 - 2.254
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Found in rock pools and on stones on the mid to lower shore.
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©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

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Trophic Strategy

Like most other species of algae and vascular plants, P. pavonica is autotrophic, converting energy from the sun into usable food via photosynthesis.Predators: Information regarding the common grazers of P. pavonica is scarce, but it is likely that the species is fed upon by a variety of organisms, including: urchins, hermit crabs, sea turtles, and herbivorous fishes. In particular, studies have documented algal grazing on this species by urchins of the genera Diadema and Echinothrix (Tuya et al. 2001; Coppard & Campbell 2007).
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Associations

Although no obligate associations have been documented between P. pavonica and other species, the alga is commonly found with other organisms occupying the same habitats. For extensive lists of these species, please visit the Tidal Flat, Mangrove and Seagrass habitat pages of this inventory.
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Life History and Behavior

Growth

The peacock's tail is known as haplodiplontic, reproducing alternately via haploid gametes or through diploid spores (e.g. Garreta et al. 2007). Spores can develop independently into new individuals, which appears to be quite common. In contrast, sexual reproduction via the release of male and female gametes does exist, but is considered rare.Regardless of the method of propagation, reproductive organs, called sori, and their associated structures are responsible for the production of gametes or spores. In spore-producing individuals, the spherical sori are 90-140 um in diameter, and are found along one or both sides of the bands of hairs growing on the lower surface of the blades (Littler & Litter 2000; Littler et al. 2008). Male and female gamete-producing sori are also found on the lower surfaces of the blades in certain plants. The female, or oogonial, sori are spherical and 40-50 um in diameter (Littler & Litter 2000; Littler et al. 2008); whereas male sori, called antheridia, are ovoid or rectangular, measuring 39-122 x 28-72 ?m (Garreta et al. 2007).Once a plant has developed and attached to the substratum, growth of new blades originates at the holdfast (Littler et al. 2008). This process isolates individuals during growth, even though tightly-packed plants may appear as large, connected mats at a glance.It has been suggested that water temperature is the predominant factor determining the process of reproduction among populations of P. pavonica (Garreta et al. 2007). Spore-producing individuals are common during different seasons, depending on location and climate (Garreta et al. 2007). In the IRL, plants are most abundant in the spring and summer, dying back in the winter months (Littler et al. 2008). Temperature &
  • Littler, DS & MM Littler. 2000. Caribbean Reef Plants. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 542 pp.
  • Littler, DS, Littler, MM & MD Hanisak. 2008. Submersed Plants of the Indian River Lagoon: A Floristic Inventory and Field Guide. Offshore Graphics. Washington, DC. USA. 286 pp.
  • Taylor, WR. 1979. Marine Algae of the Eastern Tropical and Subtropical Coasts of the Americas. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor, MI. USA. 870 pp.
  • Coppard, SE & AC Campbell. 2007. Grazing of diadematid echinoids in Fiji. Aquat. Bot. 86: 204-212.
  • Garreta, AG, Lluch, JR, Martí, MCB & MAR Siguan. 2007. On the presence of fertile gametophytes of Padina pavonica (Dictyotales, Phaeophycea) from the Iberian coasts. Anales Jardín Bot. Madrid 64: 27-33.
  • Neto, AI. 2000. Observations on the biology and ecology of selected macroalgae from the littoral of São Miguel (Azores). Bot. Mar. 43: 483-498.
  • Omezzine, F, Haouala, R, Ayeb, AE & N Boughanmi. 2009. Allelopathic and antifungal potentialities of Padina pavonica (L.) extract. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 1: 94-203.
  • Orlando-Bonaca, M, Lipej, L & S Orfanidis. 2008. Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: the case of Slovenian coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 56: 666-676.
  • Tuya, F, Martín, JA, Reuss, GM & A Luque. 2001. Food of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, central-east Atlantic Ocean). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81: 845-849.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Wikipedia

Padina pavonica

Padina pavonica, commonly known as Peacocks tail, is a brown alga found in Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean sea.[1]

References

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