Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Short cylindrical stipe (exceptionally up to 75 cm) continuing as a distinct midrib throughout the length of the narrow, ribbon-like, slightly wavy blade. Attached to substrate by claw-like holdfast termed haptera. The blade is yellowish, olive-green or rich brown in colour, supple to the touch and very flexible. Blade length varies seasonally but is usually between 30 cm - 1.5 m (exceptionally 4 m) in length. Blade may be tattered and torn by wave action sometimes leaving only the midrib at which point it may be confused with Chorda filum. Older plants may have flat, finger-like sporophylls, each up to 10 cm in length, growing from the stipe at the base of the blade. The sporophylls bear reproductive bodies called sori. When fertile the sori form a typical H-shaped figure on the sporophylls.Other common names include wing kelp, honeyware, edible fucus, and bladder locks in England; dabberlocks and keys in Scotland; and murlins, ribini, and Cupog nag Cloc in Ireland (Guiry 2000). The species name Alaria esculenta literally means 'edible wings'. This species was originally described as Fucus esculentus Linnaeus, 1767. The class Phaeophyceae may alternatively be classified in the Phylum Heterokontophyta ( Hoek van den et al. 1995).

 Alaria (Phaeophyceae, Alariaceae) is a common genus of kelps in the northern hemisphere. Fourteen species are currently recognised of which three (Alaria esculenta (L.) Greville, Alaria pylaii (Bory de Saint-Vincent) Greville, and Alaria grandifolia J. Agardh) are reported for the cold -temperate North Atlantic Ocean. Alaria esculenta, the type species described originally from the North Atlantic, exhibits a range of biogeographically correlated morphotypes suggesting the possibility of multiple specific or intraspecific entities or hybrids (Kraan pers. comm.; Kraan & Guiry 2000 in press). A key to the species of the genus Alaria is given by Widdowson (1971).

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 114 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 25 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 23
  Temperature range (°C): 3.177 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.246 - 7.121
  Salinity (PPS): 34.607 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.069 - 7.489
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.439
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 3.388

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 23

Temperature range (°C): 3.177 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.246 - 7.121

Salinity (PPS): 34.607 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.069 - 7.489

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.439

Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 3.388
 
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 Alaria esculenta is found at low water and in the subtidal to about 8 m depth on exposed rocky shores. In exceptionally high exposure (e.g. Rockall, UK and Scellig Islands, Ireland) it has been recorded to 35 m depth.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Alaria esculenta

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Alaria esculenta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Alaria esculenta

Alaria esculenta is an edible seaweed, also known as dabberlocks or badderlocks, or winged kelp. It is a traditional food along the coasts of the far north Atlantic Ocean. It may be eaten fresh or cooked in Greenland, Iceland, Scotland and Ireland. It is the only one of twelve species of Alaria to occur in the British Isles.

Description[edit]

Grows to a maximum length of 2 m. The whole frond is brown and consists of a distinct midrib with wavy membranous lamina up to 7 cm wide on either side. The frond is unbranched[1] and tapers towards the end. The base has a short stipe arising from a rhizoidal holdfast. The stipe may bear several sporophylls which are club-shaped and up to 20 cm long and 5 cm broad which bear the spores.

It grows from a short cylindrical stipe attached to the rocks by a holdfast of branching root-like rhizoids and grows to about 20 cm long. The stipe is continued into the frond forming a long conspicuous midrib, all other large and unbranched brown algae to be found in the British Isles are without a mid-rib. The lamina is thin, membranous with a wavy margin.[2][3]

Distribution and ecology[edit]

Alaria esculenta is well known in the British Isles[4] save the south and east of England. It is perennial.[5]

It is a common large algae on shores where there is severe wave exposure[6] attached to rocks just below low-watermark in the "Laminaria belt", and is common on rocky shores in exposed places.[7][8] It has a fairly high intrinsic growth rate compared to other algae, 5.5% per day and a carrying capacity of about 2 kg wet weight per square meter. It may reach lengths of about 2.5 m. It overlaps to a small degree (+) in distribution with Fucus serratus and somewhat more with Laminaria digitata. It has low and high light limitation values of about 5 and 70 W per square meter respectively. Its distribution is also limited by salinity, wave exposure, temperature, desiccation and general stress. These, and other attributes of the algae are summarized in Lewis (1964) and Seip 1980.[9][10][11]

Leaf-like sporophylls develop from the stipe and produce zoospores.[2]

A. esculenta may produce phlorotannins and oxidized lipids as protective functions against high photosynthetically active and UV radiations.[12]

World Distribution[edit]

Europe: Greenland, Iceland, Faroes, Norway, France, Helgoland, Netherlands. North America: Alaska, Labrador and Massachusetts.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dickinson, C.I.(1963). British Seaweeds. The Kew Series. Eyre & Spottiswoode
  2. ^ a b Newton, L. (1931). Handbook of the British Seaweeds. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  3. ^ Basic information for Alaria esculenta, Marine Life Information Network (MarLIN), retrieved 1 October 2007.
  4. ^ a b Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville, AlgaeBase
  5. ^ Fritsch, F.E. (1945). The Structure and Reproduction of the Algae. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  6. ^ Hardy, G. and Guiry, M.D. (2003). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. British Phycological Society. ISBN 0-9527115-1-6
  7. ^ Lewis, J.R. (1964). The Ecology of Rocky Shores. The English Universities Press Ltd.
  8. ^ Phillips, R. 1987. Seashells and Seaweeds. Elm Tree Books, London. ISBN 0-241-12028-4
  9. ^ J. R. Lewis (1964). The Ecology of Rocky Shores. English Universities Press, London. 
  10. ^ Seip,K.L.1980. A mathemaical model of competition and colonization in a community of marine benthic algae. Ecological modelling 10:77-104
  11. ^ Seip, K.L. Mathematical models of rocky shore ecosystems. In Jørgensen, SE and Mitch, WJ (Eds) Application of ecological modelling in environmental management, Part B, Chap 13, pp 341-433
  12. ^ Phlorotannin Production and Lipid Oxidation as a Potential Protective Function Against High Photosynthetically Active and UV Radiation in Gametophytes of Alaria esculenta (Alariales, Phaeophyceae). Franciska S. Steinhoff, Martin Graeve, Krzysztof Bartoszek, Kai Bischof and Christian Wiencke, Photochemistry and Photobiology, January/February 2012, Volume 88, Issue 1, pages 46–57, doi:10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.01004.x
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