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Overview

Brief Summary

Toothed wrack is a decorative brown seaweed, with serrated edges. It looks a lot like bladder wrack however it lacks the inflated bladders. It grows in the lowest zone of the tidal region, and is often found sprinkled with flat periwinkles and the polyp Dynamena pumila. Toothed wrack is not found in the Wadden Sea but it is very common in the delta region.
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Comprehensive Description

Description

 Fucus serratus, the toothed wrack, is a robust, olive-brown shrubby seaweed that grows in high densities low on the seashore. The fronds are about 2 cm wide, splitting in two repeatedly. The fronds bear no air bladders. The whole plant typically grows to about 60 cm long. The fronds have a serrated edge and grow from a short stalk.Also known as serrated or saw wrack. Ripe male plants can be distinguished by their orange colour.
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Physical Description

Type Information

Type locality: ÒOceanoÓ
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 182 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 32 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 3.25
  Temperature range (°C): 11.471 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 7.121
  Salinity (PPS): 35.184 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.069 - 6.200
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.439
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 3.285

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 3.25

Temperature range (°C): 11.471 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 7.121

Salinity (PPS): 35.184 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.069 - 6.200

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.336 - 0.439

Silicate (umol/l): 2.315 - 3.285
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Fucus serratus is found on hard substrata on the lower shore in more sheltered areas of coastline.
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Associations

Plant / epiphyte
Alcyonidium gelatinosum grows on Fucus serratus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Alcyonidium hirsutum grows on Fucus serratus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Bowerbankia imbricata grows on Fucus serratus

Plant / epiphyte
Celleporella hyalina grows on Fucus serratus

Plant / epiphyte
Electra pilosa grows on Fucus serratus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Flustrellida hispida grows on Fucus serratus
Other: major host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Membranipora membranacea grows on Fucus serratus
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Schizoporella unicornis grows on Fucus serratus
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Walkeria uva grows on Fucus serratus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Fucus serratus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Fucus serratus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 8
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Wikipedia

Fucus serratus

Fucus serratus is a seaweed of the north Atlantic Ocean, known as toothed wrack or serrated wrack.[1] It is olive–brown in colour and similar to Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus spiralis. It grows from a discoid holdfast. The fronds are flat, about 2 cm wide, bifurcating, and up to 1 m long including a short stipe. It branches irregularly dichotomously. The flattened blade has a distinct midrib and is readily distinguished from related taxa by the serrated edge of the fronds. It does not have air vesicles, such as are found in F. vesiculosus, nor is it spirally twisted like F. spiralis.

The reproductive bodies form in conceptacles sunken in receptacles towards the tips on the branches. In these conceptacles oogonia and antheridia are produced and after meiosis the oogonia and antheridia are released. Fertilisation follows and the zygote develops, settles and grows directly into the diploid sporophyte plant.

Distribution[edit]

Fucus serratus is found along the Atlantic coast of Europe from Svalbard to Portugal, in the Canary Islands and on the shores of north-east America[2][3] It was introduced to Iceland and the Faroes by humans within the last 1000 years where it was first noted in a phycological survey in 1900.

Ecology[edit]

F. serratus grows very well on slow draining shores where it may occupy up to a third of the area of the entire seashore. [4] It often dominates the rocky parts of the lower shore, exposed or immersed in rock pools, on all but the most exposed shores. [5] “…the littoral zone is characterized especially by such Phaeophyta (brown algae) as Pelvetia, Ascophyllum, Egregia, Fucus and Laminaria, particularly when the shore is rocky."[6][7]

Uses[edit]

F. serratus is used in Ireland and France for the production of cosmetics and for thalassotherapy. In the Western Isles of Scotland, it is harvested for use as a liquid fertiliser.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alan P. Major (1977). The book of seaweed. Gordon Cremonesi. ISBN 0-86033-046-X. 
  2. ^ W. R. Taylor (1972). Marine Algae of the Northeastern Coast of North America. University of Michigan Press. p. 520 pp. ISBN 0-472-08840-8. 
  3. ^ M. D. Guiry & Wendy Guiry (2006-11-23). "Fucus serratus Linnaeus". AlgaeBase. 
  4. ^ J. A. Coyer, G. Hoarau, M. Skage, W. T. Stam & J. L. Olsen; Hoarau; Skage; Stam; Olsen (2006). "Origin of Fucus serratus (Hereokontophyta; Fucaceae) populations in Iceland and the Faroes: a microsatellite-based assessment". European Journal of Phycology 41 (2): 235–246. doi:10.1080/09670260600652820. 
  5. ^ F. G. Hardy & M. D. Guiry (2006). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. British Phycological Society, London. ISBN 0-9527115-1-6. 
  6. ^ The Algae: A Review. Thomas Nelson & Sans Ltd. 1969. pp. p.301.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  7. ^ Lewis, J.R. 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. The English Universities Press Ltd.
  8. ^ Earons, Gavin. "Littoral Seaweed Resource Management". The Minch Project. Retrieved 2009-15-19.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
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