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Range DescriptionThis speciesis endemic to the Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains, where there are thought to be some 34,500-76,500 individuals spread between Russia (1,500-3,500 calling males), Georgia (7,551-15,759 calling males), Turkey (1,500-2,800 calling males), Armenia (200-400 calling males), Azerbaijan (700-3,000 calling males) (BirdLife International 2015) and Iran (less than 500 individuals)(T. Sviridovain litt. 2000,Gokhelashvili et al. 2003,BirdLife International 2004, S. Klaus in litt. 2005,Sultanov 2006,Khosravifard in litt. 2007, Storch in press). Population estimates have been very variable and data are patchy, partially due to political unrest which has hampered data collection on populations, trends and threats. Spatial modelling has led to considerably lower population estimates: the global population has recently been estimated at 30,203-63,034 individuals based on extent of suitable habitat in range countries (Gavashelishvili and Javakhishvili 2010); conversely, in Turkey the population was thought to perhaps be as low as 1,000 individuals, but based on spatial modelling, may comprise over 4,800 individuals (Gottschalk et al. 2007). Where trend estimates for 1990-2000 are available they tend to show that the population is in decline (Armenia, 10-19%, Azerbaijan, 20-29% and Turkey, 0-19%) and although in Russia the population is apparently stable, rates of decline are widely predicted to increase. The most recent population assessment as part of the European Red List of Birds found that for most countries the trend direction could not be determined, however the Russian population was reported to be stable between 2000 and 2012 (BirdLife International 2015).