Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
DescriptionMedium-sized spiders, 5.20–9.80mm in length; carapace usually pale yellow to dark orange-brown with black markings, rarely black with white markings (Figs 1–8, 10, 11); carapace surface smooth, with black feathery setae covering markings (Fig. 13); several long curved setae on clypeus, eye region and posterior to PER up to midpoint (Figs 14, 15, 19); carapace oval, broadest at posterior of coxae II, eye region narrow, fovea distinct; posterior margin very slightly concave or straight (Figs 7, 8, 10, 11). AER procurved, AME approximately 1¼ to 1½ times ALE diameter; AME separated by ½ or less their diameter, nearly touching ALE (Figs 14, 15, 19); PER strongly procurved, PME very slightly larger than PLE; PME closer to PLE than to each other; MOQ width equal anteriorly and posteriorly, or very slightly broader posteriorly, longer than wide. Chilum distinct, triangular, bilateral with clear median separation; cheliceral promargin with two or three teeth, retromargin with two teeth; shaggy seta absent; curved setae on cheliceral promargin pectinate in females (Figs 16, 20) and finely plumose in males (Fig. 17); endites straight laterally, with distinct serrula comprising sharp, ventrally curved denticles, with dense maxillar hair tuft on mesal margins (Figs 18, 22, 23); labium hemispherical, wider than long. Pleural bars sclerotised, isolated; sternum slightly longer than broad, shield-shaped, slightly narrowed anteriorly, with or without markings; surface smooth, densely covered in feathery setae, with many long erect straight setae; precoxal triangles present, intercoxal sclerites only present between coxae I and II (Figs 9, 12). Leg formula 4132 in females, 4312 or 4123 in males, legs I and III nearly equal in length; legs strongly spined, femora, patellae, tibiae and metatarsi covered in short straight black setae and black and white feathery setae (Figs 24–27, 31–39), feathery setae sparse on tarsi; retrocoxal window absent; femora with several scattered erect ventral setae (Figs 24, 31); anterior patellae with proximal and distal long fine dorsal setae (Figs 24, 34); posterior patellae with fine long proximal dorsal seta and distal spine, clearly shorter than patella (Fig. 35); patellar indentation narrow, broad at proximal end (Figs 25, 26, 32, 33); metatarsi III longer than metatarsi I and II; metatarsi distally scopulate (Fig. 39); tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi with several dorsal and lateral trichobothria with sunken distal plate (Fig. 29), also with several short erect setae (Fig. 38); tarsal organ oval, slightly elevated from integument, surface finely wrinkled, opening oval (Figs 30, 42); paired tarsal claws short, with very dense claw tufts in between (Figs 28, 41); metatarsi III and IV without terminal preening brush or comb. Abdomen oval, either yellow-orange with black markings or black with white markings; three pairs of fine straight setae on anterior margin above pedicel; dorsal scutum small, strongly sclerotized, extending less than ⅛ abdomen length in females and slightly more than ½ abdomen length in males; two pairs of distinct sclerotised dorsal sigilla present in both sexes (Figs 7, 8, 11, 12); epigastric region moderately sclerotised, venter without post-epigastric sclerites and ventral sclerite, inframamillary sclerite present, distinct, densely covered in short setae; two paired rows of tiny sclerites from epigastric furrow to spinnerets, outer row weakly sclerotised and indistinct. Spinnerets: ALS of female (Figs 43, 49) with two major ampullate gland spigots and many piriform gland spigots; ALS of male (Figs 44, 50) with single major ampullate gland spigot, single large adjacent nubbin and many piriform gland spigots; PMS of female (Figs 45, 51) with three large cylindrical gland spigots, one small minor ampullate gland spigot and one or two aciniform gland spigots; PMS of male (Figs 46, 52) with one large minor ampullate gland spigot, one tartipore and one nubbin, with zero aciniform gland spigots in Copa flavoplumosa and two in Copa kei sp. n.; PLS of female (Figs 47, 53) with two large cylindrical gland spigots and zero (in Copa flavoplumosa) or several (in Copa kei sp. n.) aciniform gland spigots; PLS of Copa flavoplumosa male with two reduced aciniform gland spigots and several tiny nubbins present (Fig. 48); PLS of Copa kei sp. n. with three aciniform gland spigots only (Fig. 54). Female epigyne with 6-shaped or curved sclerotized epigynal ridges leading to lateral copulatory openings (Figs 55, 57); copulatory ducts directed anteriorly or transversely before entering ST II posteriorly; ST II usually oval, sometimes expanded posterolaterally, connected broadly to somewhat elongated posterior ST I. Male palpal segments without apophyses; cymbium with spines prolaterally and ventrally, dorsal surface covered in curved finely plumose setae with round tip and thicker straight setae with sharp tips (Fig. 59); distal end of cymbium in Copa kei sp. n. with shallow depression, densely covered in setae (Fig. 60); embolus with variable width and angle of base, and length and curvature of distal coil (Figs 56, 58, 61–66).