Overview

Brief Summary

Dictyna is a genus of small (3,7), web-spinning spiders that live all over the world (14).Although the delineation of this genus and its relationship to other closely-related genera are not entirely clear (16), the approximately 120 known species (13) classified in the genus Dictyna tend to have relatively wide abdomens, short legs, and a well-defined cardiac mark (the abdominal marking over the heart [17])(7).Their mouthparts, like those of other spiders in the family Dictynidae, are disproportionately long, especially in males (7,14). Dictyna spiders often build their webs on the leaves, twigs, bark, and dried flower heads of plants (4,10,11,12,18) - though they can also be found on walls and in the corners of windows(14). Most species in this genus are solitary (like the majority of spiders), but a few have a more unusual lifestyle, living in groups in a large web divided into individual units (5, 6). Like those of some other groups of spiders (15), the webs of Dictyna spiders are made in part of an old and energetically-expensive form of silk known as cribellate silk (2,5,12), each thread of which contains hundreds or even thousands of tiny fibers with dry-adhesive properties (1,2,5,15). Dictyna spiders spin these along with thicker strands of silk to form dense, zig-zagging, sometimes tent-like tangles that are especially good at catching insects (1,5,12,14,15,18). As these spiders frequently choose fruit trees (such as apple, pear, and citrus trees) (4, 10, 11) and other crop plants like cotton and alfalfa as their web-building locations, the insects they catch are often pests of these agricultural crops (10, 11). Like many other spiders (9), Dictyna spiders provide a significant service to humans by capturing and eating these insects, which include (among others) flies, leafhoppers, and aphids (10, 11). However, these spiders are also sometimes major predators of insects that are helpful in keeping invasive plant species such as spotted knapweed and yellow starthistle under control (19). Because the spread of these weeds can pose dangers to native plant life, cropland, pastures, and even horses (8, 20), these spiders can have a negative impact as well (19).

  • Literature Cited

  • 1. Blackledge, T. A. and J. W. Wenzel. “State-Determinate Foraging Decisions and Web Architecture in the Spider Dictyna volucripes (Araneae Dictynidae).” Ethology Ecology and Evolution 13.2 (2001): 105-113.

  • 2. Blackledge, Todd A., Nikolaj Scharff, Jonathan A. Coddington, Tamas Szüts, John W. Wenzel, Cheryl Y. Hayashi, and Igni Agnarsson. “Reconstructing Web Evolution and Spider Diversification in the Molecular Era.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106.13 (2009): 5229-5234.

  • 3. Crawford, Rod. “Myths About Identifying Spiders.” The Spider Myths Site. Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. 2010. 26 Jul. 2011. http://www.burkemuseum.org/spidermyth/myths/easy.html

  • 4. Hagley, Elmer A. C. and Wayne R. Allen. “Prey of the Cribellate Spider, Dictyna annulipes (Araneae, Dictynidae), on Apple Tree Foliage.” Journal of Arachnology 17.3 (1989): 366-367.

  • 5. Jackson, R. R. “Comparative Studies of Dictyna and Mallos (Araneae : Dictynidae): IV. Silk-Mediated Interattraction.” Insectes Sociaux 29.1 (1982): 15-24.

  • 6. Jackson, Robert R. “Comparative Studies of Dictyna and Mallos: V. Tolerance and Resistance to Starvation.” Psyche 87 (1980): 211-220.

  • 7. Lissner, Jørgen. “The Spiders of Greenland: Images and Species Descriptions.” 2011. 4 Aug. 2011. http://www.jorgenlissner.dk/greenlandspiders.aspx

  • 8. Lym, Rodney G. and Richard K. Zollinger. “Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.).” North Dakota State University. 1992. 26 Jul. 2011. http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/weeds/w842w.htm

  • 9. Maloney, Darlene, Francis A. Drummond, and Randy Alford. Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 190: Spider Predation in Agroecosystems: Can Spiders Effectively Control Pest Populations? Orono: Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station, University of Maine, 2003.

  • 10. Miliczky, E.R. and C. O. Calkins. “Prey of the Spider, Dictyna coloradensis, on Apple, Pear, and Weeds in Central Washington (Araneae : Dictynidae).” Pan-Pacific Entomologist 77.1 (2001): 19-27.

  • 11. Nyffeler, M., D. A. Dean, and W. L. Sterling. “Prey Records of the Web-Building Spiders Dictyna segregata (Dictynidae), Theridion australe (Theridiidae), Tidarren haemorrhoidale (Theridiidae), and Frontinella pyramitela (Linyphiidae) in a Cotton Agroecosystem.” The Southwestern Naturalist 33.2 (1988): 215-218.

  • 12. Pekár, Stanislav. “Foraging Mode: A Factor Affecting the Susceptibility of Spiders (Araneae) to Insecticide Applications.” Pesticide Science 55.11 (1999): 1077-1082.

  • 13. Platnick, Norman I. “The World Spider Catalog, Version 12.0.” American Museum of Natural History. 2011. 25 Jul. 2011. http://research.amnh.org/iz/spiders/catalog/DICTYNIDAE.html

  • 14. Robinson, William H. Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

  • 15. “Silk: The Spider’s Success Story.” Australian Museum. 2009. 26 Jul. 2011. http://australianmuseum.net.au/Silk-the-spiders-success-story

  • 16. Spagna, Joseph C., Sarah C. Crews, and Rosemary G. Gillespie. “Patterns of Habitat Affinity and Austral/Holarctic Parallelism in Dictynoid Spiders (Araneae : Entelegynae).” Invertebrate Systematics 24.3 (2010): 238-257.

  • 17. “Spider Terms.” South Indian Spiders. 8 Aug. 2011. http://www.southindianspiders.org/spider-terms.htm

  • 18. Starr, Christopher K. “Sexual Behavior in Dictyna volucripes (Araneae, Dictynidae).” Journal of Arachnology 16.3 (1988): 321-330.

  • 19. Wheeler, G. S., J. P. McCaffrey, and J. B. Johnson. “Developmental Biology of Dictyna Spp. (Araneae: Dictynidae) in the Laboratory and Field.” American Midland Naturalist 123.1 (1990): 124-134.

  • 20. “Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.).” Written Findings of the State Noxious Weed Control Board - Class B - B-Designate Weed. 2007. 26 Jul. 2011. http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/weed_info/Written_findings/Centaurea_solstitialis.html

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 873
Specimens with Sequences: 829
Specimens with Barcodes: 810
Species: 22
Species With Barcodes: 20
Public Records: 145
Public Species: 9
Public BINs: 11
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dictyna sp. 1RB

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Dictyna

Dictyna is spider genus in the family Dictynidae.

Species[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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