The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • B. A. Menge, J. Lubchenco, S. D. Gaines and L. R. Ashkenas, A test of the Menge-Sutherland model of community organization in a tropical rocky intertidal food web, Oecologia (Berlin) 71:75-89, from p. 85 (1986).
  • Cutler, Edward B. 1994. The Sipuncula: Their Systematics, Biology, and Evolution. xvii + 453
  • Opitz S (1996) Trophic interactions in Caribbean coral reefs. ICLARM Tech Rep 43, Manila, Philippines
  • Saiz-Salinas, J. (2015). Sipunculidae Rafinesque, 1814. In: Saiz, J. (2015) World Sipuncula database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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