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Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Eggs are yellowish brown in color and larvae are creamy white with a brown head (Oregon State University Extention). The pupae are also creamy white, and reveal distinct adult parts with separate wing sacs along their backs that eventually fuse (Shearer). Adults are blackish, 9 to 11 mm long, have elbowed antennae slightly widened at the tip, have fused elytra and cannot fly. They have patches of golden scales on their elytra covered with yellow curled hairs (Warner and Negley 1976). The apex of their tibia is rounded, their femora are toothed, and their rostrum is long and widened at the tip (Warner and Negley 1976). Although the weevils are parthenogenetic and there are no males in North America, they do have a spermatheca (Cram 1958). Adults tend to aggregate in large groups due to pheromones and other attractants (Alford et al. 1996). Royal Alberta Museum page
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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This species occurs in Southern Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Quebec (Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 1999). It occurs in the western United States as far north as Alaska, and is very well spread out across the eastern United States (Warner and Negley 1976). It inhabits northern and mid Europe as far south as France and Italy, and is present in Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania (Warner and Negley 1976).
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Ecology

Habitat

Larvae live underground among plant roots, and adults prefer dark quiet spaces (Warner and Negley 1976).
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
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Trophic Strategy

Larvae feed on roots, and adults feed nocturnally on the foliage of a wider range of host plants (Warner and Negley 1976). North American host plants include maple, maidenhair, bittersweet, clematis, dracaena, hawthorn, cyclamen, strawberry, juniper, privet, mint, four o'clock, tuberose, rhododendron, rose, raspberry, nightshade, potato, spirea, yew, arborvitae, blueberry, and the European host plants include grape (Warner and Negley 1976).
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Associations

Animal / pathogen
Heterorhabditis megidis infects larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal adult of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on leaf (margin) of Rhododendron
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal adult of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on leaf (edge) of Euonymus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on tuber of Cyclamen
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on tuber of Begonia
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Primula
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Crassula

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Pteropsida

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Incarvillea delavayi

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Saxifraga

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Sansevieria

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal adult of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on leaf (edge) of Camellia
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Orchidaceae

Foodplant / open feeder
subterranean larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus grazes on root of Magnoliopsida

Animal / pathogen
Steinernema carpocapsae infects larva of Otiorhynchus sulcatus

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Usually overwinter as larvae, but adults may hibernate in warmer climates (Warner and Negley 1976).
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Life Cycle

In the early summer, adults emerge from the soil, then must feed for approximately 4 weeks before they begin ovipositing (Oregon State University Extension). They oviposit their eggs in soil near plant roots and foliage, and oviposition ends by early September (Oregon State University Extension). Each adult may deposit more than 800 eggs in its lifetime, and its life expectancy can be 2 or more years (Alford et al. 1996). Larvae overwinter in the soil among plant roots, continue to develop in the spring when the soil warms up, then pupate in the late spring (Oregon State University Extension). Dispersal of this flightless weevil is dependent on the distances it walks and on shipments of horticultural products (Entomol. Soc. of Wash. 1999). It inhabits greenhouses, nurseries, vineyards, and other agricultural crops (Entomol. Soc. of Wash. 1999).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Otiorhynchus sulcatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Common in North America (Warner and Negley 1976), not of concern.
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Wikipedia

Otiorhynchus sulcatus

Otiorhynchus sulcatus, commonly known as the black vine weevil or simply vine weevil, is native to Europe, but common in North America as well. It is a pest of many garden plants.

Overview[edit]

The adult weevil is matte black with fused wing covers, and is unable to fly. It feeds at night on the outer edges of leaves, causing the leaves to have a notched margin. Broadleaved evergreen plants such as Camellia, Rhododendron, Euonymus and Bergenia are particularly prone to damage, although a wide range of different garden plants is susceptible to attack.[1]

Female weevils have the ability to reproduce parthenogenetically [2] with fertilisation of eggs required to produce males, though no males have been observed.[3] This form of parthenogenesis is known as thelytoky. Grubs grow up to 1 cm in length, have a slightly curved, legless body, creamy-white in colour, with a tan-brown head. They live below the soil surface, and feed on roots and cambium at the base of the trunk. They cause most damage to herbaceous plants, particularly those growing in containers, where root growth is restricted. Severe infestations can result in complete root destruction and hence plant death.

Host plants[edit]

The host plants include the following, listed by genus:

Controls[edit]

Organic controls[edit]

Found in the soil of Taxus

The soil dwelling grubs can be controlled using parasitic nematodes, for example Steinernema kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, which can be bought from some garden centres and by mail order.[4] They are simply mixed with water, and watered onto the soil.

Adult weevils can be controlled by using sticky barriers on the trunks of affected plants, as the weevils return to the soil each day.

Adults can also be manually removed from plants at night when they can be found feeding on leaf edges. Use only a dim torch or candlelight to search by, as they will drop to the ground if startled by bright light.

Adults may also be controlled using the fungus Beauveria bassiana, which is a biocontrol.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John A. McLean (2007). "Otiorhynchus (= Brachyrhinus) sulcatus (Curculionidae)". UBC Faculty of Forestry. 
  2. ^ http://www.fruitdisease.co.uk/EntomologyResearchPage3.asp
  3. ^ "Black Vine Weevil". 2003. 
  4. ^ "Black Vine Weevil". University of Illinois Extension. 
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