Overview

Brief Summary

The spider family Anyphaenidae (ghost spiders) has a worldwide distribution and includes more than 500 described species (521 according to Platnick 2013), mainly from the American tropics. Just a few dozen species are known from North America north of Mexico (in this region, Anyphaena and Hibana are widely distributed, Wulfila and Arachosia are mainly eastern, and Pippuhana and Lupettiana are southern) (Richman and Ubick 2005). These spiders are very active, mainly nocturnal hunters (Hibana are diurnal). Their continuous activity, which is unusual for spiders, may be fueled by the consumption of energy-rich plant nectar taken from extra-floral nectaries or flowers (Taylor and Foster 1996). Although the ghost spiders were long treated as comprising a subfamily within the family Clubionidae. Lehtinen (1967) and Platnick (1974) provided evidence to successfully make the case for their status as a distinct family. Like spiders in the majority of spider families, anyphaenids have eight eyes.

North American anyphaenids are found on vegetation, among dead leaves, and under loose bark and rocks (especially in winter). In eastern North America, most species are long-legged and tend to be collected by sweeping foliage in fields and meadows, whereas in western North America most species have shorter legs and tend to be found in leaf litter and beneath stones and logs (Platnick 1974). Anyphaenids are wandering hunters, not web-builders, and make little use of silk beyond building sac-like retreats and constructing egg sacs. At least one species (Hibana velox) is known to eat insect eggs (Richman et al. 1983) and feed at extrafloral nectaries (Taylor and Foster 1996). Some amphyaenids are believed to be important in the control of certain tree crop pests, such as aphids (Richman 2003).

(Richman and Ubick 2005; Bradley 2013)

  • Bradley, R.A. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Lehtinen, P.T. 1967. Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families, with notes on the evolution of the suborder Araneomorpha. Annales Zoologici Fennici 4: 199-468.
  • Platnick, N.I. 1974. The spider family Anyphaenidae in America north of Mexico. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 146(4): 205-266.
  • Platnick, N. I. 2013. The world spider catalog, version 14.0. American Museum of Natural History, online at http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html.
  • Richman, D.B. 2003. Spiders (Araneae) of pecan orchards in the southwestern United States and their role in pest suppression. Southwestern Entomologist Supplement 27: 115-122.
  • Richman, D.B. and D. Ubick. 2005. Anyphaenidae. Pp. 66-67 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
  • Richman, D.B., W.F. Buren, and W.H. Whitcomb. 1983. Predatory arthropods attacking the eggs of Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Puerto Rico and Florida. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 18: 335-342.
  • Taylor, R.M. and W.A. Foster. 1996. Spider nectarivory. American Entomologist 42: 82-86.
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Comprehensive Description

AnyphaenidaeAnimalia

Anyphaenidae Bertkau, 1878

  • Candek, Klemen, Gregoric, Matjaz, Kostanjsek, Rok, Frick, Holger, Kropf, Christian, Kuntner, Matjaz, Miller, Jeremy A., Hoeksema, Bert W. (2013): Targeting a portion of central European spider diversity for permanent preservation. Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 980: 980-980, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.1.e980
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Hoeksema, Bert W.

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AnyphaenidaeAnimalia

Anyphaenidae Bertkau, 1878

  • Candek, Klemen, Gregoric, Matjaz, Kostanjsek, Rok, Frick, Holger, Kropf, Christian, Kuntner, Matjaz, Miller, Jeremy A., Hoeksema, Bert W. (2013): Targeting a portion of central European spider diversity for permanent preservation. Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 980: 980-980, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.1.e980
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Hoeksema, Bert W.

Source: Plazi.org

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:1639
Specimens with Sequences:1036
Specimens with Barcodes:1007
Species:170
Species With Barcodes:125
Public Records:141
Public Species:10
Public BINs:10
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Anyphaenid sac spider

The anyphaenid sac spiders (family Anyphaenidae) are distinguished from the sac spiders and other spiders by having the abdominal spiracle placed one third to one half of the way anterior to the spinnerets toward the epigastric furrow on the underside of the abdomen. In most spiders the spiracle is just anterior to the spinnerets. Like clubionids, anyphaenids have eight eyes arranged in two rows, conical anterior spinnerets and are wandering predators that built silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark or under rocks. There are more than 500 species in over 50 genera worldwide.

Anyphaena species

The family is widespread and includes such common genera as Anyphaena (worldwide except tropical Africa and Asia) and Hibana (New World). Only one species (A. accentuata) occurs in northwestern Europe.

Species in the latter genus are important predators in several agricultural systems, especially tree crops. They are able to detect and feed on insect eggs, despite their poor eyesight. They share this ability at least with some miturgid spiders.

The depicted spider, Hibana velox, is a common spider of this family in the United States.

Systematics[edit]

The categorization into subfamilies follows Joel Hallan.[1]

See also[edit]

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