The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bradley, R.A. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Breene, R. G., D. Allen Dean, G. B. Edwards, Blain Hebert, Herbert W. Levi, Gail Manning, et al. 2003. Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. 42
  • Candek, Klemen, Gregoric, Matjaz, Kostanjsek, Rok, Frick, Holger, Kropf, Christian, Kuntner, Matjaz, Miller, Jeremy A., Hoeksema, Bert W. (2013): Targeting a portion of central European spider diversity for permanent preservation. Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 980: 980-980, URL:
  • Deltshev, Christo, Komnenov, Marjan, Blagoev, Gergin, Georgiev, Teodor, Lazarov, Stoyan, Stojkoska, Emilija, Naumova, Maria (2013): Faunistic diversity of spiders (Araneae) in Galichitsa mountain (FYR Macedonia). Biodiversity Data Journal 1, 977: 977-977, URL:
  • Dondale, C.D., J.H. Redner, P. Paquin, and H.W. Levi. 2003. The Orb-weaving spiders of Canada and Alaska. Uloboridae. Tetragnathidae, Araneidae, and Theridiosomatidae (Araneae). The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Part 23. Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, National Research Council publications, NRC 44466. 371 pages.
  • Levi, H.W. 1968. The spider genera Gea and Argiope in America (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 136(9): 319-352.
  • Levi, H.W. 2005. Araneidae. Pp. 68-74 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
  • Opell BD; Hendricks ML. 2010. The role of granules within viscous capture threads of orb-weaving spiders. Journal of Experimental Biology. 213: 339-346.
  • Opell BD; Karinshak SE; Sigler MA. 2011. Humidity affects the extensibility of an orb-weaving spider’s viscous thread droplets. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 214(17): 2988-2993.
  • Opell, B. D.; Hendricks, M. L. 2007. Adhesive recruitment by the viscous capture threads of araneoid orb-weaving spiders. Journal of Experimental Biology. 210(4): 553-560.
  • Platnick, N. I. 2013. The world spider catalog, version 14.0. American Museum of Natural History, online at
  • Scharff, N. and J.A. Coddington. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Aranae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 355-434.
  • W. E. Ricker, 1934. An ecological classification of certain Ontario streams. Univ. Toronto Studies, Biol. Serv. 37, Publ. Ontario Fish. Res. Lab. 49:7-114, from pp. 78, 89.


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