The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bourlat, S. J., Juliusdottir, T., Lowe, C. J., Freeman, R., Aronowicz, J., Kirschner, M., et al. 2006. Deuterostome phylogeny reveals monophyletic chordates and the new phylum Xenoturbellida. Nature, 444:85–88.
  • Bourlat, S. J., Nielsen, C., Lockyer, A. E., Littlewood, D. T., & Telford, M. J. 2003. Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs. Nature 424:925–928.
  • Bourlat, S. J., Rota-Stabelli, O., Lanfear, R., & Telford, M. J. 2009. The mitochondrial genome structure of Xenoturbella bock (phylum Xenoturbellida) is ancestral within the deuterostomes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9:107.
  • Edgecombe, G. D., Giribet, G., Dunn, C. W., Hejnol, A., Kristensen, R. M., Neves, R. C., Rouse, G. W., Worsaae, K., and Sørensen, M. V. 2011. Higher-level metazoan relationships: Recent progress and remaining questions. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 11(2):151-172.
  • Halanych, K. M., J. D. Bacheller, A. M. A. Aguinaldo, S. M. Liva, D. M. Hillis, and J. A. Lake. 1995. Evidence from 18S ribosomal DNA that the lophophorates are protostome animals. Science 267: 1641-1643.
  • Hejnol, A. and Martindale, M.Q. 2009. The mouth, the anus and the blastopore: Open questions about questionable openings. In: “Animal Evolution: Genomes, Fossils and Trees”, eds. Littlewood D.T.J. & Telford, M.J., Oxford University Press. pp. 33-40.
  • Hejnol, A., Obst, M., Stamatakis, A., Ott, M., Rouse, G. W., Edgecombe, G. D., et al. 2009. Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic methods. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 276:4261–4270.
  • Helmkampf, M., I. Bruchhaus and B. Hausdorf. 2008. Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic relationships. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46(1):206-214.
  • Lundin, K. 1998. The epidermal ciliary rootlets of Xenoturbella bocki (Xenoturbellida) revisited: new support for a possible kinship with the Acoelomorpha (Platyhelminthes). Zoologica Scripta 27: 263–270.
  • Lundin, K. 2001. Degenerating epidermal cells in Xenoturbella bocki (phylum uncertain), Nemertodermatida and Acoela (Platyhelminthes). Belgian Journal of Zoology 131:153–157.
  • Marletaz, F., E. Martin, Y. Perez, D. Papillon, X. Caubit, C. Lowe, B. Freeman, L. Fasano, C. Dossat, P. Wincker. 2006. Chaetognath phylogenomics: A protostome with deuterostome-like development. Current Biology 16: R577–578.
  • Matus, D. Q., R. R. Copley, C. W. Dunn, A. Hejnol, H. Eccleston, K. M. Halanych, M. Q. Martindale, and M. J. Telford. 2006. Broad taxon and gene sampling indicate that chaetognaths are protostomes. Current Biology 16:R575–576.
  • Nielsen, C. 2010. After all: Xenoturbella is an acoelomorph! Evolution & Development 12:241
  • Nielsen, C. 1995. Animal evolution. Interrelationships of the living phyla (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Papillon, D., Y. Perez, X. Caubit, and Y. Le Parco. 2004. Identification of chaetognaths as protostomes is supported by the analysis of their mitochondrial genome. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21(11):2122-2129.
  • Passamaneck, Y. J. and K. M. Halanych. 2006. Lophotrochozoan phylogeny assessed with LSU and SSU data: Evidence of lophophorate polyphyly. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(1):20-28.
  • Pedersen, K. J., & Pedersen, L. R. 1986. Fine structural observations on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Xenoturbella bocki Westblad, 1949. Acta Zoologica 67:103–113.
  • Pedersen, K. J., & Pedersen, L. R. 1988. Ultrastructural observations on the epidermis of Xenoturbella bocki Westblad, 1949, with a discusion of epidermal cytoplasmic filament systems of invertebrates. Acta Zoologica 69:231–246.
  • Philippe, H., Brinkmann, H., Copley, R. R., Moroz, L. L., Nakano, H., Poustka, A. J., et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255–258.
  • Philippe, H., Brinkmann, H., Martinez, P., Riutort, M., & Baguñà, J. 2007. Acoel flatworms are not Platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics. PloS ONE 8:e717.
  • Raikova, O. I., Reuter, M., Jondelius, U., & Gustafsson, M. K. S. 2000. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the nervous and muscular systems of Xenoturbella westbladi Bilateria inc. sed.). Zoomorphology 120:107–118.
  • Swalla BJ, Smith AB. 2008. Deciphering deuterostome phylogeny: molecular, morphological and palaeontological perspectives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:1557-1568. 10.1098/rstb.2007.2246


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