The mygalomorph (trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, and their relatives) spider family Cyrtaucheniidae (waferlid trapdoor spiders) includes 102 described species according to Platnick (2013), who follows recent authors by separating into a distinct family, Euctenizidae, a number of genera formerly placed in the Cyrtaucheniidae and by transferring two other genera from Cyrtaucheniidae to Nemesiidae. For North America north of Mexico, Platnick (2013) recognizes just a single cyrtaucheniid (Cyrtauchenius talpa) but 60 species of euctenizids (from a total known world fauna of 66 species; outside the United States, five additional species are known from Mexico and one from Guadeloupe).
The Cyrtaucheniidae has been viewed as one of the most diverse mygalomorph families in North America, in both number of species and diversity of ecological habits (Bond and Hedin 2006), but as noted above, recent work has indicated that the family as currently composed is polyphyletic (Bond et al. 2012) and this diversity is almost all now assigned to the family Euctenizidae. Bond and Opell (2002) revised the "southwestern North American Cyrtaucheniidae" (subfamily Euctenizinae). The euctenizines were included in the family Ctenizidae until Raven (1985) named the group as a subfamily within the Cyrtaucheniidae. More recently, the status of this group as a distinct family, Euctenizidae, has been supported by multiple studies (Goloboff 1993; Bond and Opell 2002; Bond and Hedin 2006; Hedin and Bond 2006; Bond et al. 2012).
- Bond, J.E.. 2005. Cyrtaucheniidae. Pp. 45-47 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
- Bond, J.E. and M. Hedin. 2006. A total evidence assessment of the phylogeny of North American euctenizine trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae) using Bayesian inference. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41(1): 70-85.
- Bond, J.E. and B.D. Opell. 2002. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genera of southwestern North American Euctenizinae trapdoor spiders and their relatives (Araneae: Mygalomorphaeae, Cyrtaucheniidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 136: 487-534.
- Bond, J.E., B.E. Hendrixson, C.A. Hamilton, and M. Hedin. 2012. A Reconsideration of the Classification of the Spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae) Based on Three Nuclear Genes and Morphology. PLoS One. 7(6): e38753.
- Goloboff, P.A. 1993. A reanalysis of mygalomorph spider families (Araneae). American Museum Novitates No. 3056: 1-32.
- Hedin, M. and J.E. Bond. 2006. Molecular phylogenetics of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S): Conflict and agreement with the current system of classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 454–471.
- Platnick, N. I. 2013. The world spider catalog, version 14.0. American Museum of Natural History, online at http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html
- Raven, R.J. 1985. The spider infraorder mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182(1): 1-180.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||171||Public Records:||166|
|Specimens with Sequences:||170||Public Species:||124|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||170||Public BINs:||0|
|Species With Barcodes:||125|
Wafer trapdoor spider
The wafer trapdoor spiders (superfamily Cyrtauchenioidea, family Cyrtaucheniidae) are a widespread family of spiders that lack the thorn-like spines on tarsi and metatarsi I and II (the two outermost leg segments) found in true trapdoor spiders (Ctenizidae).
Many, but not all, make wafer-like doors to their burrows, while others build the cork-like doors found commonly in the true trapdoor spiders. The biology of nearly all the species is poorly known.
The monotypic Angka hexops has only six eyes, with the posterior median eyes missing. It is up to 15 mm long in both sexes.
The family is well represented in the United States, Mexico, South America, and Africa. Common U.S. genera include Myrmekiaphila, Aptostichus and Promyrmekiaphila. A currently undescribed genus in the western United States may hold an altitude record for the family, being found up to over 11,000 feet (3,300 meters). The genus Anemesia is found only in Central Asia, and Cyrtauchenius reaches from Algeria north to Italy, with one species found in the USA. Angka is endemic to the cloud forest of Doi Inthanon, Thailand.
The categorization into subfamilies follows Raven (1985)
- Aporoptychinae Simon, 1889
- Cyrtaucheniinae Simon, 1892
- Euctenizinae Raven, 1985
- Raven, R.J. 1985. The spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182: 1-180.
- Murphy & Murphy 2000
- Raven, Robert J. (1985): The spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182: 1-180.
- Murphy, Frances & Murphy, John (2000): An Introduction to the Spiders of South East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.
- Platnick, Norman I. (2008): The world spider catalog, version 8.5. American Museum of Natural History.