The mygalomorph spider family Dipluridae (funnel-web spiders) includes 179 described species (Platnick 2013); most species are tropical, but five occur in North America north of Mexico (Coyle 2005; Bradley 2013). The family is perhaps best known for the dangerously venomous Sydney Funnel-web Spider (Atrax robustus) of Australia (Bradley 2013).
The two genera in the United States are found in the southwestern United States (Euagrus) and in the southern Appalachians and Pacific Northwest (Microhexura). Euagrus spiders are among the most common mygalomorphs in Mexico and Central America, with three species occurring in North America north of Mexico. Microhexura includes just two species (see below). Spiders in both genera build ground webs composed of flattened, often branching, tubular retreat passages connected to small, irregular sheets. These webs are often hidden under objects or in soft, porous organic substrates. Euagrus prefers riparian, woodland, and forest habitats. Euagrus webs are typically found beneath rocks, but inconspicuous irregular funnels and sheets often extend into surrounding leaf litter. Microhexura montivaga, a federally listed endangered species in the United States, is restricted to remnant patches of fir forest on a few high peaks in the southern Appalachian Mountains, where it lives almost exclusively under moss mats on rock outcrops. The other Microhexura species, M. idahoana, is widespread in Pacific Northwest conifer forests, where its webs are often common in or under rotting logs and other organic debris. (Coyle 2005) More information on the natural history of Microhexura can be found in Coyle (1981, 1985). Information on Euagrus can be found in Coyle (1988).
Diplurids have only four spinnerets, having lost the anterior pair. The median spinnerets have one short segment. The posterior spinnerets are long, widely spaced, and conspicuous. (Bradley 2013)
- Bradley, R.A. 2013. Common Spiders of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.
- Coyle, F.A. 1981. The mygalomorph spider genus Microhexura (Araneae, Dipluridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 170 (1): 64-75.
- Coyle, F.A. 1985. Observations on the mating behaviour of the tiny mygalomorph spider Microhexura montivaga Crosby and Bishop (Araneae, Dipluridae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 6(8): 328-330.
- Coyle, F.A. 1988. A revision of the American funnel-web mygalomorph spider genus Euagrus (Araneae, Dipluridae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 187(3): 203-292.
- Coyle, F.A. 2005. Dipluridae. Pp. 48-49 in D. Ubick, P. Paquin, P.E. Cushing, and V. Roth (eds.) Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnological Society.
- Platnick, N. I. 2013. The world spider catalog, version 14.0. American Museum of Natural History, online at http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index.html
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimen Records: 33
Specimens with Sequences: 17
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 5
Public Records: 3
Public Species: 1
Public BINs: 2
To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!