Flower-Visiting Insects of Showy Penstemon (purple variety) in Illinois
(this plant is adventive from a region to the west of Illinois; some long-tongued bees suck nectar, while other long-tongued bees & short-tongued bees collect pollen; the oligolectic wasp sucks nectar and collects pollen, while the bee-fly sucks only nectar; the large carpenter bee perforates [prf] the flower near its base to suck nectar [sn@prf] and is non-pollinating; beetle activity is unspecified; two observations are from MacRae as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Clinebell & Bernhardt)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus pensylvanica sn; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Synhalonia rosae sn; Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica prf sn@prf np; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Hoplitis pilosifrons cp, Osmia distincta cp olg
Halictidae (Halictinae): Lasioglossum imitatus cp
Vespidae (Masarinae): Pseudomasaris occidentalis sn cp olg
Bombyliidae: Bombylius sp. sn
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera neglecta (McR), Acmaeodera tubulus (McR)
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