Ecology

Associations

Known predators

Geomyidae (gopher) is prey of:
Bubo virginianus
Mustelinae
Canis latrans
Mephitinae
Taxidea taxus
Gulo gulo
Ursus arctos
Strigiformes
Accipitridae
Lynx rufus
Vulpes vulpes
Asio otus
Tyto alba
Buteo regalis
Buteo swainsoni

Based on studies in:
Canada: Manitoba (Forest)
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Grassland)
USA: Montana (Tundra)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 410 (1930).
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
  • D. L. Pattie and N. A. M. Verbeek, Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains, Condor 68:167-176 (1966); Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Mountains, Northwest Sci. 41(3):110-117 (1967).
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Known prey organisms

Geomyidae (gopher) preys on:
Microtus ochrogaster
Helianthus
Agropyron
Agrostis
Stipa
alpine vegetation
Bouteloua gracilis
Kochia
Sphaeralcea coccinea
Psoralidium tenuiflorum
Hesperostipa comata
Aristida purpurea
Sporobolus cryptandrus
Pascopyrum smithii

Atriplex canescens
Opuntia macrorhiza

Based on studies in:
Canada: Manitoba (Forest)
USA: California, Cabrillo Point (Grassland)
USA: Montana (Tundra)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. D. Bird, Biotic communities of the Aspen Parkland of central Canada, Ecology, 11:356-442, from p. 410 (1930).
  • L. D. Harris and L. Paur, A quantitative food web analysis of a shortgrass community, Technical Report No. 154, Grassland Biome. U.S. International Biological Program (1972), from p. 17.
  • D. L. Pattie and N. A. M. Verbeek, Alpine birds of the Beartooth Mountains, Condor 68:167-176 (1966); Alpine mammals of the Beartooth Mountains, Northwest Sci. 41(3):110-117 (1967).
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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Paws excavate burrows: pocket gopher
 

The front paws of pocket gophers are used to excavate burrows because they are large and powerful, with curved claws.

   
  "A pocket gopher tunnels through the soil in search of roots and bulbs to eat. Note the huge front paws and powerful fingers ending in strong curved claws for digging. A small animal, it can excavate burrows hundreds of metres long." (Foy and Oxford Scientific Films 1982:178)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Foy, Sally; Oxford Scientific Films. 1982. The Grand Design: Form and Colour in Animals. Lingfield, Surrey, U.K.: BLA Publishing Limited for J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldine House, London. 238 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 437
Specimens with Sequences: 387
Specimens with Barcodes: 385
Species: 26
Species With Barcodes: 26
Public Records: 160
Public Species: 25
Public BINs: 65
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Gopher

This article is about the rodent. For other meanings, see gopher (disambiguation).

Pocket gophers, commonly referred to as gophers, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae.[3] There are approximately 35 species of gopher living in Central and North America.[4] They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities. Gophers are endemic to North and Central America.

The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of genera within the family. These are the "true" gophers; however there are several ground squirrels in the distantly related family Sciuridae that are often mistakenly called gophers as well.

Description[edit]

Gophers weigh around 0.5 pounds (230 g), and are about 6–8 inches (150–200 mm) long in body length, with a tail 1–2 inches (25–51 mm) long. A few species reach weights approaching 1 kg (2.2 lb). Within any species, the males are larger than the females and can be nearly double their weight.[5]

Their lifespan is normally one to three years[6] assuming no diseases or predation. The maximum life span for the pocket gopher is approximately five years.[7] Some gophers, such as those in the genus Geomys, have lifespans that have been documented as up to seven years in the wild.[6]

Most gophers have brown fur that often closely matches the color of the soil in which they live. Their most characteristic features are their large cheek pouches, from which the word "pocket" in their name derives. These pouches are fur-lined, and can be turned inside out. They extend from the side of the mouth well back onto the shoulders. They have small eyes and a short, hairy tail, which they use to feel around tunnels when they walk backwards.

Pocket gophers examined by humans have been found to often have external parasites on them.[6] Common predators of the gopher include weasels, snakes and hawks.[2]

Behavior[edit]

All pocket gophers create a network of tunnel systems that provide protection and a means of collecting food. They are larder hoarders, and their cheek pouches are used for transporting food back to their burrows. Gophers can collect large hoards. Unlike ground squirrels, gophers do not live in large communities and seldom find themselves above ground.

The entrances can be identified by small piles of loose dirt covering the opening.[8] Their burrows can be found in many areas where the soil is softer and easily tunneled. They will often appear in vegetable gardens, lawns, or farms, as gophers like moist soil (see Soil biomantle). This has led to their frequent treatment as pests.

Gophers eat earthworms, grubs, plant roots, shrubs and other vegetables such as carrots, lettuce, radishes, and any other vegetables with juice. Some species are considered agricultural pests. The resulting destruction of plant life will then leave the area a stretch of denuded dirt.

Pocket gophers are solitary outside of the breeding season, aggressively maintaining territories that vary in size depending on the resources available. Males and females may share some burrows and nesting chambers if their territories border each other, but in general, each pocket gopher inhabits its own individual tunnel system. Although they will attempt to flee when threatened, they may attack other animals, including cats and humans, and can inflict serious bites with their long, sharp teeth.

Depending on the species and local conditions, pocket gophers may have a specific annual breeding season, or may breed repeatedly through the year. Each litter typically consists of two to five young, although this may be much higher in some species. The young are born blind and helpless, and are weaned at around forty days.[9]

Control[edit]

Geomys spp and Thomomys spp are classed as "prohibited new organisms" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 preventing it from being imported into the country.[10]

Most pocket gopher species are relatively common and not of conservation concern. The desert pocket gopher is the most threatened species, because it occupies a very small range and is thus more vulnerable to habitat loss.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

A typical pocket gopher.

There has been much debate among taxonomists about which races of pocket gopher should be recognised as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.

Some sources also list a genus Hypogeomys, with one species, but this genus name is normally used for the Malagasy giant rat, which belongs to the family Nesomyidae.

In popular culture[edit]

Minnesota is nicknamed "the Gopher State", and the University of Minnesota's athletics teams are collectively known as the Golden Gophers, led by mascot Goldy Gopher. Gainer the Gopher is the mascot of the Saskatchewan Roughriders in the Canadian Football League.[11] A gopher also plays a key role in the film Caddyshack.[12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nardi, James B. (2009). Life in the Soil: A Guide for Naturalists and Gardeners. University of Chicago Press. p. 233. ISBN 9780226568539. 
  2. ^ a b "Pocket Gophers". National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife
  4. ^ "Outwit Critters:". Retrieved 16 January 2014. "There are 35 species of gophers living in both North and Central America." 
  5. ^ Macdonald (Ed), Professor David W. (2006). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920608-2. 
  6. ^ a b c Hygnstrom, Scott E. (2010). Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. DIANE Publishing Inc. pp. B–21. ISBN 1-4379-3688-1. 
  7. ^ Whisson, Delsey. Small Grain Production Pt 8: Pest Management -- Vertebrates. UCANR Publications. p. 5. ISBN 1-60107-411-5. 
  8. ^ "Gopher". A-Z Animals. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  9. ^ Patton, James (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 628–631. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  10. ^ Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 2003 - Schedule 2 Prohibited new organisms, New Zealand Government, retrieved 26 January 2012 
  11. ^ http://www.canada.com/saskatoonstarphoenix/news/sports/story.html?id=c42ec3a0-c453-479d-98ea-24509e8002d2
  12. ^ http://books.google.ca/books?id=FTL5AQAAQBAJ&pg=PA48
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