Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Widely distributed in Europe; Japan; northern South America (Colombia); Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to California; throughout eastern North America, from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Nebraska and south to Florida and Texas. There are also reports from the eastern Himalayas. Madeira, the Canary Islands, Central America and Montana that have not been confirmed (Crum et al. 1981).

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants to 10, rarely 40 mm, in rather shiny, yellow to dark green tufts. Leaves erect to falcate-secund, 2-3 mm, gradually narrowed from a lanceolate base to a subula largely occupied by the costa; margins erect, serrulate in the distal half of the limb; costa excurrent; cells in 1-3 rows above the leaf middle, rather short-rectangular, 11-14 × 4-7 µm. Sexual condition dioicous. Seta 5-15 mm, yellowish. Capsule 1-1.5 mm, suberect or sometimes inclined to horizontal, cylindric, often curved, asymmetric, tapered at the neck, usually ± obliquely furrowed and constricted on 1 side below an oblique mouth; annulus consisting of 1 row of small cells, persistent; operculum long-rostrate; peristome teeth 400-500 µm, divided 1/2 length distally. Spores 14-18 µm, faintly roughened.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Dicranum heteromallum Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 128. 1801; Campylopus henrici Renauld & Cardot; Dicranella fitzgeraldii Renauld & Cardot; D. heteromalla var. latinervis Cardot & Thériot; D. heteromalla var. orthocarpa (Hedwig) A. Jaeger & Sauerbeck; Dicranum orthocarpum Hedwig
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Type Information

Isotype for Dicranella heteromalla var. pittieri Renauld & Cardot
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. Pittier
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Volcan du Poás, Costa Rica, Central America
  • Isotype: Renauld, F. F. & Cardot, J. 1892. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique. 30: 145.
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Isotype for Dicranella heteromalla var. pittieri Renauld & Cardot
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. F. Pittier
Year Collected: 1888
Locality: Volcan du Poás, Costa Rica, Central America
  • Isotype: Renauld, F. F. & Cardot, J. 1892. Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique. 30: 145.
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Isotype for Campylopus henrici Renauld & Cardot
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Henry
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Saline, Kansas, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Renauld, F. F. & Cardot, J. 1888. Bot. Gaz. 13: 197.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Found growing on shaded banks, especially along woodland trails, or on soil covering upturned roots of trees; probably favoring acid conditions (Crum et al. 1981).

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / associate
fruitbody of Cyphellostereum laeve is associated with gametophyte of Dicranella heteromalla

Foodplant / parasite
solitary apothecium of Helotium fulvum parasitises Dicranella heteromalla
Other: major host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dicranella heteromalla

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dicranella heteromalla

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widely distributed in Europe; Japan; northern South America (Colombia); Alaska and the Aleutian Islands to California; throughout eastern North America, from Newfoundland to Minnesota and Nebraska and south to Florida and Texas. There are also reports from the eastern Himalayas. Madeira, the Canary Islands, Central America and Montana that have not been confirmed. Found growing on shaded banks, especially along woodland trails, or on soil covering upturned roots of trees probably favoring acid conditions.

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Notes

Comments

Dicranella heteromalla is a common species recognized by suberect, obliquely furrowed capsules tapered toward the base and oblique at the mouth. The leaf margins are distinctly toothed above the middle. Reports for Oklahoma are by B. D. Mahler and W. F. Mahler (1980) and from Texas by E. Whitehouse and F. McAllister (1954).
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