Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Found in northern and central Europe; reported from Japan; Alaska, the Aleutians, and the Yukon south to Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming; reported from California; Labrador to Maine and New Hampshire, also in Michigan (Crum et al. 1981).

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Distribution: China, Japan, Europe, and North America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 3-10 mm, silky, yellowish. Leaves loosely erect to falcate-secund, to 2 mm, lanceolate, gradually subulate; margins erect, sometimes finely denticulate at the extreme apex and obscurely denticulate near junction of base and blade; costa long-excurrent; lamina disappearing in the distal 1/3-1/2 of the limb, with cells long-rectangular, 30-40 × 4-5 µm (7-8:1). Sexual condition dioicous. Perichaetial leaves to 3 mm, flexuose-spreading to squarrose, abruptly subulate from an oblong-sheathing base, finely erose or denticulate at the shoulders. Seta 9-13 mm, reddish, becoming dark with age. Capsule 0.7-1 mm, inclined or nodding, asymmetric, striate, not strumose; annulus compound; operculum ca. 1 mm, slenderly curved-rostrate from a conic base; peristome teeth 400 µm, divided 1/2 way length distally. Spores 16-18 µm, minutely roughened.
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Description

Plants rather small, 3–10(–15) mm high, yellowish green, in tufts. Stems erect, simple or branched, somewhat radiculose below. Leaves up to 2 mm long, loosely erect to falcate-secund, lanceolate, gradually to rather abruptly narrowed from a triangular to oblong-ovate base to a subulate to long setaceous acumen; margins plane, entire or sometimes finely serrulate at the apex; costa stout, short- to long-excurrent, occupying ca. 1/5 the leaf base width; upper cells linear-rectangular, 30–40 µm × 4–5 µm, lower cells broader and shorter. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves somewhat differentiated, up to 3 mm long, flexuose-spreading to squarrose, abruptly narrowed from an oblong-ovate, sheathing base to a long, subulate acumen. Setae straight, 8–13 mm long, reddish, becoming dark with age; capsules inclined to nodding, shortly cylindric, curved, asymmetric, not strumose, furrowed when dry; opercula slenderly long-rostrate, curved, ca. 1 mm long; annuli compound, deciduous; peristome teeth divided to the middle, vertically striate below, reddish. Spores 15–18 µm in diameter, finely papillose.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Dicranum subulatum Hedwig, Sp. Musc. Frond., 128, figs. 1-5. 1801; Dicranella curvata (Hedwig) Schimper; D. secunda Lindberg; D. stikinensis Grout, as stickinensis; D. subulata var. curvata (Hedwig) Rabenhorst
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Synonym

Dicranella secunda Lindb., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 10: 244. 1872, nom. illeg. incl. spec. prior.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Grows on damp soil on banks, often in rocky places (Crum et al. 1981).

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Habitat: on wet soil near streams or sandy places at roadsides.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Arrhenia retiruga parasitises gametophyte of Dicranella subulata

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Found in northern and central Europe; reported from Japan; Alaska, the Aleutians, and the Yukon south to Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming; reported from California; Labrador to Maine and New Hampshire, also in Michigan. Grows on damp soil on banks, often in rocky places.

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Notes

Comments

The leaves of Dicranella subulata have exceedingly slender subulae with a long-excurrent costa and very long cells. The perichaetial leaves are abruptly narrowed from a sheathing base to a spreading subula. The setae are red and the inclined capsules striate-furrowed but not strumose. Dicranella stikinensis, known from a single collection, is difficult to evaluate, as the sporophytes are not quite mature. The setae are reddish yellow, and the capsules seem erect and smooth, although a few of them are somewhat inclined and show a hint of ribbing that may become more pronounced with age. The peristome teeth are clearly striate at the base of forks but irregularly papillose basally. The most interior perichaetial leaves are somewhat shorter with shorter subulae than the exterior. However, in spite of apparent differences, it seems that the species can be dismissed as a juvenile expression of D. subulata. On describing D. stikinensis, Grout also saw some similarity to D. subulata, which has red setae, peristome teeth pitted-striolate basally, long, spreading leaf subulae, and perichaetial leaves not differing in size and distinctly spreading from a clasping base.

Records for this species in the United States include reports by I. A. Worley and Z. Iwatsuki (1970), A. J. Grout (1928-1940, vol. 1), E. H. Ketchledge (1980), and F. D. Bowers and S. K. Freckmann (1979). Dicranella curvata var. missourica Cardot & Thériot seems to be far out of range and is unlikely to be related to D. subulata. Also, D. subulata is not recorded in the checklist of P. L. Redfearn Jr. (2001).

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