Ecology

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Alien species

De oesterparasiet Bonamia ostreae is van oorsprong afkomstig uit Californië en werd van daaruit via oestertransport geëxporteerd naar Europa (in 1979). Een precieze datum voor de eerste waarneming van de parasiet voor onze kust ontbreekt. De aanwezigheid van de soort is pas in 1998-1999 bevestigd voor de Spuikom in Oostende. In Frankrijk, Nederland en België verdween de inheemse platte oester Ostrea edulis nagenoeg volledig tengevolge van deze parasiet. Infectie met deze bloedcelparasiet veroorzaakt bij platte oesters ontstekingen, die na 2-3 jaar vaak de dood tot gevolg hebben. Zowel de Japanse oester Crassostrea gigas als de mossel Mytilus edulis blijken resistent.
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Alien species

The oyster parasite Bonamia ostreae is native to California and has been exported to Europe through oyster transport (in 1979). It's unknown when this parasite was first found in Belgian waters, but its presence was confirmed in 1998-1999 for the Sluice-Dock in Ostend. In France, the Netherlands and Belgium the native flat oyster Ostrea edulis disappeared almost completely after the introduction of this parasite. Infected oysters show inflammatory reactions which often result in death after 2 to 3 years. Both the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas as the mussel Mytilus edulis are resistant.
  • VLIZ Alien Species Consortium
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Wikipedia

Bonamia ostreae

Bonamia ostreae is a parasitic protist in the phylum Haplosporidia that can cause lethal infections in shellfish, particularly the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Infection in oysters rarely results in clinical signs of disease and often the only indication of the infection is increased mortality.[1] The Australian flat oyster, Ostrea angasi, has also been infected with Bonamia parasites.[2]

Pathology[edit source | edit]

The cells of Bonamia ostreae measure 2-3 µm in diameter and are found within the haemocytes of the oyster. Lesions occur with focal infiltration of the haemocytes within the connective tissue of the mantle and gills, and in the vascular sinuses near the digestive gland, intestine and stomach. Infection seems to be correlated to haemocyte destruction and diapedesis.[1]

Epidemiology[edit source | edit]

A study in the Netherlands of the epidemiology of European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis, infected with Bonamia ostreae showed that the parasite was present throughout the year and was detected in all oyster weight classes. The study analyzed the prevalence relative to O. edulis density, biomass and a range of environmental parameters. Prevalence was greatest in the largest oysters and was higher in spring than in the autumn, perhaps because of the mortality of these shellfish during the summer. Mortality seemed to be correlated with higher water temperatures and oysters seemed to be more susceptible to infection after seasons with lower food availability or lower salinity levels.[3]

Distribution[edit source | edit]

In Europe, distribution of the parasite is along the Atlantic coast from Spain to Denmark. In the USA it is found on the Atlantic coast in Maine and the Pacific coast from California to Washington.[1]

Research[edit source | edit]

A study was made in 2001 into the relative susceptibility of different strains of Ostrea edulis to the parasite Bonamia ostreae.[4]

Another study was made in 2004 into the incidence of infection by Bonamia ostrea in different populations of Ostrea edulis.[5]

A study made in 2010 aimed to evaluate the Bonamia spp. infection status of Ostrea stentina in the Mediterranean Sea.[6]

A further study made in 2010 investigated whether the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, could act as a carrier or a reservoir of Bonamia ostreae and transmit the infection to Ostrea edulis.[7]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b c Scottish Fish Health Inspectorate
  2. ^ Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.
  3. ^ Engelsma, Marc Y.; Kerkhoff, Sonja; Roozenburg, Ineke; Haenen, Olga L. M.; van Gool, Ad; Sistermans, Wil; Wijnhoven, Sander; Hummel, Herman (2010). "Epidemiology of Bonamia ostreae infecting European flat oysters Ostrea edulis from Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands". Marine Ecology Progress Series 409: 131–42. doi:10.3354/meps08594. 
  4. ^ Culloty, S; Cronin, M; Mulcahy, M (2004). "Potential resistance of a number of populations of the oyster Ostrea edulis to the parasite Bonamia ostreae". Aquaculture 237: 41–58. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.04.007. 
  5. ^ Culloty, Sarah C.; Cronin, Michelle A.; Mulcahy, Máire F. (2001). "An investigation into the relative resistance of Irish flat oysters Ostrea edulis L. to the parasite Bonamia ostreae (Pichot et al., 1980)". Aquaculture 199 (3–4): 229–44. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00569-5. 
  6. ^ Hill, Kristina M.; Carnegie, Ryan B.; Aloui-Bejaoui, Nejla; Gharsalli, Refka El; White, Delonna M.; Stokes, Nancy A.; Burreson, Eugene M. (2010). "Observation of a Bonamia sp. Infecting the oyster Ostrea stentina in Tunisia, and a consideration of its phylogenetic affinities". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103 (3): 179–85. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2009.12.011. PMID 20036670. 
  7. ^ Lynch, S. A.; Abollo, E.; Ramilo, A.; Cao, A.; Culloty, S. C.; Villalba, A. (2010). "Observations raise the question if the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, can act as either a carrier or a reservoir for Bonamia ostreae or Bonamia exitiosa". Parasitology 137 (10): 1515–26. doi:10.1017/S0031182010000326. PMID 20388237. 
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