The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Hodges R W, et al.. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. , , .
  • Kristensen N P. 1999. Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York, .
  • Lafontaine, J. Donald, and B. Christian Schmidt. 2010. Annotated check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico. ZooKeys, vol. 40. 1-239
  • Schaefer, Paul W.. 1988. Proceedings: Lymantriidae: A Comparison of Features of New and Old World Tussock Moths. United States Department of Agriculture, New Haven, Connecticut, .
  • Scoble M J. 1995. The Lepidoptera Form, Function and Diversity. Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, .


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!