One Subfamily, five tribes, 350 genera, and 2,500 species.
Nearctic, Palearctic, Oriental, Ethiopian, Neotropical, Australian, Oceanic Island
Egg mass pattern:
The eggs mass pattern varies among species within the lymantria. Eggs can be laid in large masses, often covered by female terminal hair. Many species also cover the eggs in a frothy secretion. (Scoble 1992) Other species have been observed placing smaller amounts of eggs under tree bark scales, or using material to create a sort of camouflage. (Schaefer 1988)
Description of egg morphology:
spherical, hemispherical or subcylindrical. (Scoble 1992)
Body setae on verrucae:
Larval body description:
Often brightly colored
Larval abdomen description:
Two medial dorsal glands on the sixth and seventh abdominal segments. Somewhat eversible, function not determined, possibly defensive (Schaefer, 1988).
Adult Abdomen Morphology
Adult Thorax Morphology
Number of tibial spurs midleg:
Number of tibial spurs hindleg:
from 2 to 4
The adult forelegs are hairy (Kitching, Rawlins 1998)
areole is either present or absent (Scoble 1992)
located at the base of the abdomen, prespiracular. (Scoble 1992)
Adult Head Morphology
Number of maxillary palp segments:
from 0 to 1
Male scape description:
Pectinations are stronger in the male, end in 1-3 long spinules. (Scoble 1992)
Larvae have a mid-dorsal yellow/red gland on A6 and often on A7 that is eversible. In resting position, wings are held in a broad triangle. They are pressed against the substrate; the forelegs are extended in front of the head
Life History and Behavior
Species exhibit both stenophagy and polyphagy feeding habits.
It is speculated that arctic dwelling species have evolved to be diurnal because of continuous summer daylight (Schaefer, 1988).
Life History: Immature Stages
Poorly recorded. Mainly on forest and shade trees. Less common are shrubs, vines, herbs, and grasses (Schaefer, 1988).
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimen Records: 6730
Specimens with Sequences: 6218
Specimens with Barcodes: 5829
Species With Barcodes: 576
Public Records: 2171
Public Species: 208
Public BINs: 350
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