Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

T. maculata is one of three similar species in the genus. The largest known specimen is an immature male of 143 mm ML. This is a small meso- to bathypelagic squid that is found in the tropical Eastern Atlantic. A detailed account of this species is given by N. Voss (1985).

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Comprehensive Description

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arms I and II of males with 3-4 series of suckers on modified tips.
    2. Arms I and II of males with 25-27 normal suckers proximal to modified ends.
    3. Largest arm III suckers 3 times basal suckers in diameter (at least 3.2% of GL in diameter).
    4. Figure. Oral views of arm tips of T. maculata. Top - Arm I tip. Bottom - Arm II tip. These are the extreme tips of the arms and occupy between just 3% and 8% of the arm length. Subadult male, 143 mm GL. Drawings from Voss, 1985, pp. 33, 34.

  2. Mantle
    1. Single-point tubercle, poorly developed, at each funnel-mantle fusion.

      Figure. Ventral view of the tubercle at the funnel-mantle fusion of T. maculata, hypotype, juvenile male, 123 mm GL. From Voss, 1985, pp. 33, 34.

  3. Tentacles
    1. Largest club suckers with 22-26 teeth.

      Figure. Oral view of the largest sucker from club manus of T. maculata, male, 143 mm GL.

Comments

The extent of the modifications to the arms of mature males is unknown. Additional details of the description of T. maculata can be found here.

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Distribution

Range Description

This species is distributed in the tropical waters of the eastern and southeastern Atlantic Ocean (Young and Mangold 2006). Its distribution includes the Mauritanean Upwelling (Voss et al. 1992).


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Vertical distribution

Data from opening-closing nets on the vertical distribution of this species have been reported at 11° N, 20° W (Lu and Clarke, 1975). Paralarvae up to about 20 mm ML were captured mostly in the upper 100 m during both the day and the night. By about 40 - 50 mm ML three of the four squid captured were taken between 500 - 700 m day and night; the fourth had apparently wandered upward at night and was taken at 300 - 400 m. The sparse data suggest that these squid undergo ontogenetic descent without diel vertical migration. Vertical distribution chart modified from Lu and Clarke, 1975.

Geographical distribution

T. maculata is known only from the tropical Eastern Atlantic in oceanic waters whose depth exceeds 1000 m. At the northern end of its range, it appears to be confined to the oceanographically distinct region of the Mauritanian Upwelling (Voss, 1985). For a comparison with the distribution of the other two species, see "Teuthowenia." Geographical distribution chart modified from Voss, 1985.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This small meso- to bathypelagic species occurs in the tropical waters off West Africa (Young and Mangold 1999). This species undergoes downward ontogenetic migration (Voss et al. 1992). Paralarvae are present in the upper 100 m, larger paralarvae occur between ~300 and 600 m, and large juveniles occur below 600 m (Voss et al. 1992). This species does not undergo diel vertical migrations (Voss et al. 1992). Overall, little is known about the biology and ecology of this species. The largest known specimen is an immature male with a mantle length of approximately 14 cm: in other words adult specimens have never been found.

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 600 - 600
  Temperature range (°C): 8.710 - 8.710
  Nitrate (umol/L): 34.258 - 34.258
  Salinity (PPS): 35.077 - 35.077
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.831 - 1.831
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.038 - 2.038
  Silicate (umol/l): 19.301 - 19.301
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Life history

The paralarval stage of T. maculata terminates at about 55 - 60 mm GL when the eyes become sessile. Generally a tubercule at the mantle-funnel fusion is not present in paralarvae. This species has chromatophores that are smaller, more numerous and more densely arranged than in the other species of the genus.

Figure. Dorsal views of growth stages of T. maculata. Left to right - 11 mm ML, 27 mm ML, 56 mm ML. Drawings from Voss, 1985, p. 22.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Young, R., Vecchione, M. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s

Justification

Teuthowenia maculata is an oceanic species which has a wide geographic distribution and inhabits deep-water, making it is less susceptible to human impact. It is also not targeted by fisheries and is unlikely to be in the future. However, since no adult has ever been reported, we must consider this species as Data Deficient since we hardly know it at all. Once adults have been described, more research is needed on the ecology and biology of this species.

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Population

Population
The population size of this species is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are unknown.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended, specifically on the distribution, population abundance and ecology of this species.
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