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Overview

Comprehensive Description

[The Family Carabodidae ]

The species belonging to the family Carabodidae have the most strongly chitinized body among the Oribatida with a highly varied sculpture by which they are readily distinguishable. The taxa belonging here are spead all over the continents, excepting the Antarctica, many genera are treated as cosmopolites. The great majority of the species live in litter, in decaying wood, only a small number of the species live in moss and in matted grass.

The family was long since separated from the other groups by C. L. Koch (1836), and this fairly coherent group was rarely enriched by new genera, while those genera which proved to belong to other taxa, or were found to be synonyms (Berlese 1913, Trägardh 1931, Willmann 1936) were transferred. However, owing to recent explorations, the number of new genera suddenly increased, the diagnoses of which occasionally presented some difficulty when evaluating the supraspecific categories, leaving the researcher sometimes at loss, consequently, now it is inevitable to make a survey or a partial revision of the group. Thus, besides giving some highly needed redescriptions, I attempt to summarize on the bases of the literature, and partly on the investigated material and the type material that knowledge that definitely refer to the family.

Previously to my investigations the family included 35 genera (as nomen), among them, however, Neocepheus Willmann, 1936, according to our present State of knowledge, is unequivocally a synonym of Carabodes C. L. Koch, 1836 (Balogh 1961), furthermore, two such genera are treated here momentarily ( Podopterotegaeus Aoki, 1969 and CerocepheusTrägardh , 1931) which, without even detailed examination, have no close relationship with the other genera.

According to my opinion the genus Podopterotegaeus should be transferred to the superfamily Polypterozetoidea Grandjean, 1959, and there provisorily in the family Polypterozetidae , although, a relationship with the families Eutegaeidae Balogh, 1965 or Cepheidae Berlese, 1896 might also be considered. That concerns the genus Cerocepheus some connections are standing with Bornebuschia Hammer, 1966 within the family Eutegaeidae . However, with regard to the structure of the mouthparts and that of the notogaster, further, the overall habitus of the sternocoxal region do not support even provisory solution, consequently, I suggest to separate this taxa under the name of

Cerocepheidaefam. n.

whose type genus is CerocepheusTrägardh , 1931, belonging to the superfamily Cepheoidea .

My present studies revealed that the genus Carabocepheus Berlese , 1913, described from South Africa, cannot be retained in the family Carabodidae ; this I may safely State, since I have a long series of the only known species of the genus. I have found (see redescription later) that the genus should be transferred to the superfamily Otocepheoidea ,* and under that I errect a new family Carabocepheidaefam. nov.

* According to my opinion the closest allies of the superfamily Carabodoidea should be looked for in this superfamily, based primarily on the structure of the leg, but also on other features.

Besides the suggested transfers, my results of investigations include the erection of three new genera, thus, again, the number of valid genera in the family reaches 35. The State of Diplobodes Aoki, 1958 is not fully solved yet, but since I could not carry out type examination, I am not of the opinion (see identification key) that it is identical either with Gibbicepheus (see Balogh 1961: 276), or Machadocepheus (see Aoki 1970: 419).

I have also found that the family is by far not homogeneous, thus, some clearly delimitable groups of genera might be conceived. In order to make orientation easy and with a view to show the degree of relationship I propose to erect a number of subfamilies, though, obviously, this division might need some further comparative examinations and perhaps finer corrections.

The system of the family, thus, would show the picture on page 00-00.

So far in the separation of the taxa, either at the specific or supraspecific level, only a small number of features has been used, and in the descriptions, even in the comparatively more recent ones, such data as the number of epimeral setae, the position or the absence of the lyrifissure iad are lackirtg or incorrect. During my present investigations I endeavoured to study several new characteristics not studied before. Consequently, the most important identification features in the keys are the following:

1. The number and the position of notogastral setae. This number may vary between 8 and 15, their position is frequently, however, the function of the notogastral structure. I consider it most important how and in what number the setae originate on the humeral apophysis, or in general in the humeral region.

The shape of the setae is considered only at the specific level. True enough this feature as identification character combined with other features might appear and can be decisive in the Separation of genera: Hardybodes , Cavernocarabodes , Klapperiches , Berndobodes . Similarly, the highly variable shape of the sensillus I should not consider decisive in the characterization of genera, let alone Separation from other groups. For the description of setiform organs and setae I use a recently elaborated nomenclature (Mahunka and Zombori 1985).

2. The number of epimeral and anogenital setae. In the family Carabodidae two basic types (2 —1—3— 3 and 3 —1—3— 3) can be recognized, since the 2 —1—3— 3, the 1 —1—2— 4 or 3 —1—2— 4 are only variations of them. Furthermore, on epimere 1 frequently appears 1-1 insertion point asymmetrically in the place of seta la, the only reliable feature is the absence of seta lc.

The basic type for the number of anogenital setae is 4 —1—2— 3. The number of genital setae is between 4 and 10, that of aggenital ones between 0 and 2, adanal 2-3, while the number of anal setae is constantly two pairs.

It is rather questionable whether the number of the genital setae might be considered to be of generic value, since there are many generic pairs ( Gibbibodes - Gibbicepheus , Austrocarabodes - Xenocarabodes , etc.) where the separation is based on this character, otherwise, these pairs are highly similar.

The most important characters will be given in the following table:

Table I

EmTaCe I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII.
Aokiella 0 0 1 1 14 4 1 0 0 2 2 2 1
Apomotocepheus 1 1 1 1 15 6 1 0 2 1 1 1 0
Archegocepheus 0 0 1 ? 15 4 1 0 2 2 1 1 1
Austrocarabodes 0 0 0 1 14 4 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
Bathocepheus 1 0 1 1 13 4 0 0 1 0 1 2 0
Berndobodes 0 0 1 1 15 4 1 1 2 1 1 3 0
Carabodes 0 0 1 1 10 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Cavernocarabodes 0 0 0 1 10 4 1 2 2 0 1 3 0
Congocepheus 1 0 0 2 14 4 1 0 1 0 2 2 1
Cubabodes 0 0 1 0 8 4 1 1 2 0 1 2 1
Diplobodes 0 1 ? ? 14 4 1 0 2 1 1 ? 1
Flexa 0 0 0 1 10 4 1 0 2 0 2 2 0
Gibbibodes 0 1 1 1 14 5 1 0 2 0 1 2 1
Gibbicepheus 0 1 1 1 14 4 1 0 2 0 1 2 1
Gymnobodes 0 0 1 0 10 4 0 3 2 0 1 2 0
Hardybodes 0 0 0 1 15 4 1 1 0 1 1 2 0
Kalloia 0 1 1 1 15 4 1 0 2 1 1 2 1
Klapperiches 0 0 0 1 10 4 1 3 2 0 1 1 0
Machadocepheus 1 1 1 1 14 4 1 0 1 1 1 2 1
Meriocepheus 1 0 1 1 10 4 1 2 1 1 1 3 0
Machadocepheus 1 1 1 1 15 4 1 0 1 1 1 2 1
Meriocepheus 1 0 1 1 10 4 1 2 1 1 1 3 0
Neocarabodes 0 1 1 1 15 6 1 0 2 1 1 2 1
Odontocepheus 0 0 1 2 14 4 1 1 0 0 2 1 0
Opisthocepheus 1 0 2 1 13 4 1 1 ? 1 1 2 0
Pasocepheus 1 1 2 ? 13 4 1 1 ? 0 1 2 0
Pentabodes 0 0 2 1 10 5 1 2 2 0 0 1 1
Phyllocarabodes 0 0 1 2 10 6 1 2 2 0 0 2 1
Spathulocepheus 1 1 1 1 10 10 1 1 1 0 1 4 1
Tansocepheus 0 0 1 1 14 4 1 0 1 0 0 1 0
Trichocarabodes 0 0 1 1 14 6 1 0 2 0 0 2 1
Tuberocepheus 1 1 1 1 12 4 1 0 2 0 1 2 1
Uluguroides 0 0 1 2 14 6 1 2 1 0 1 2 1
Yoshiobodes 0 0 0 1 15 4 1 0 0 1 1 2 1

I. Cavity or deep hollow in the dorsosejugal region: 0 = absent, 1 = present

II. Notogastral structure: 0 = absent, 1 = present

III. Lamellar cuspis: 0 = absent, 1 = present but short, and 2 = present and long

IV. Tutorium: 0 = absent, 1 = present but weak, and 2 = present and strong or with cuspis

V. Number of notogastral setae

VI. Number of genital setae

VII. Number of aggenital setae

VIII. Position of lamellar setae: on lateral surface of lamellae = 0, dorsal surface of lamellae = 1, in interlamellar position = 2, and in front of lamellae = 3

IX. Position of interlamellar setae: on dorsal surface of lamellae = 0, on the median margin of lamellae = 1, and in interlamellar position = 2

X. Setae in humeral position: absent = 0, one pair present = 1, and two pairs present = 2

XI. Direction of notogastral setae: all backwards = 0, without constant direction = 1, and one or more pairs directed forwards = 2

XII. Position of adanal setae: [[ pictogram ]]

XIII. End of anal plate: without long spine = 0, and with long spine = 1

IX. Position of interlamellar setae: on dorsal surface of lamellae = 0, on the median margin of lamellae = 1, and in interlamellar position = 2

X. Setae in humeral position: absent = 0, one pair present = 1, and two pairs present = 2

XI. Direction of notogastral setae: all backwards = 0, without constant direction = 1, and one or more pairs directed forwards = 2

XII. Position of adanal setae: [[ pictogram ]]

XIII. End of anal plate: without long spine = 0, and with long spine = 1

XIII. End of anal plate: without long spine = 0, and with long spine = 1

3 . The position of the adanal setae and lyrifissure iad. This feature apparently well characterizes the genera, since it is constant. There may be recognized three basic types and some variations of these. a) ad1 and ad2 in postanal, ad3 in preanal position; b) ad1 in postanal, ad2 is adanal and ad3 in preanal position; c) ad1 in postanal, ad2 and ad3 in adanal position.

It is rather difficult to recognize lyrifissure iad, the sculpture of the ventral plate frequently Covers it. It appears, that, excepting a few cases, when it is wholly reduced, that it is situated always far from the anal plate, and only rarely may it be found close to seta ad3, but then very frequently in paraanal position.

4. The sculpture of prodorsum, the development of the lamellae and the position of prodorsal setae. The lamellae were rarely included in the generic diagnoses, excepting when it was strikingly obvious, but especially the shape or the lack of lamellar cuspis, and together with this the origin of the lamellar setae are surely generic characters. The apex of the lamella may be insignificant, or rounded, sharply pointed, but there are strongly enlarged or reclinate types too. The swellings or the importance of transverse laths resembling translamellae in the interlamellar region are not fully explained, furthermore, there are many transitional forms. These all need further investigations.

The lamellar seta most frequently originates on the outer side of the lamella, but of course, it may appear on the surface of lamella dorsalis, or even on the prodorsal surface. The position of the interlamellar seta also appears to be significant, since it may be inserted on the lamellar surface, in the interlamellar region or on the margin of the lamella. Within a genus its position is reliably constant.

5. The structure of notogaster including the development of the dorsosejugal region. I do not consider the sculpture important at the supraspecific level , on the other hand, apparently the projections, elevations and costulae forming a structure may be decisive in making a choice, which is usually accompanied in the dorsosejugal region by a strong hollow or cavity. Their variation and joint appearance are shown in computer evaluation.

This time I had no opportunity to study the shape of the legs and their chaetotaxic variation. It appears, however, that the shape of seta l" of the genu, or that of setae u, further, the sculpture of the femur could well be used in future identification.

  • Mahunka, S. (1986): A survey of the family Carabodidae C. L. Koch, 1836 (Acari: Oribatida). Acta Zoologica Hungarica 32, 73-135: 73-78, URL:http://unknown
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Key for the genera of the family Carabodidae

1 (20) Ten or less pairs of notogastral setae present.

2 (3) Eight pairs of notogastral setae present, no setae on the anterior third of notogaster .......... Cubabodes Balogh et Mahunka, 1974

3 (2) Ten pairs of notogastral setae present.

4 (15) Four pairs of genital setae.

5 (10) Epimeral setal formula: 1 - 1 - 3 - 3 or 1 - 1 —2— 4. Interlamellar setae originating in interlamellar position.

6 (7) A deep cavity present in front of the genital aperture. Aggenital setae present. The distance between the anal and genital opening very small Cavernocarabodes .......... Mahunka, 1974

7 (6) Coxisternal and ventral region normal, without deep cavity or hollow. Aggenital setae absent. Anal and genital opening far from each other.

8 (9) Apodemes short, all ending free. Epimeral setal formula: 1 —1— 2-4. Lamellae with well-developed lateral cuspis .......... Gymnobodes Balogh, 1965

9 (8) Apodemes long, touching medially and composing a well-observable network. Epimeral setal formula: 1 - 1 - 3 - 3. Lamellae without sharp lateral cuspis .......... Klapperiches Mahunka , 1978

10 (5) Epimeral setal formula: 3 - 1 - 3 - 3 or 2 - 1 - 3 - 3. Interlamellar setae originating on the surface of lamellae.

11 (12) Prodorsum and notogaster with very high elevation, dorsosejugal region well excavated .......... Meriocepheus Aoki , 1973

12 (11) Prodorsum and notogaster gradually convex, without hollow or elevation.

13 (14) Setae c2 long, directed forwards, all other notogastral setae short, phylliform. Lyrifissure iad situated in adanal position .......... Flexa Kulijew, 1977

14 (13) Setae c2 directed outwards or backwards, never forwards. No difference in the shape of c2 and c1 or d2. Lyrifissure iad absent or originating far from anal aperture .......... Carabodes C. L. Koch, 1836

15 (4) Five-ten pairs genital setae present.

16 (17) Five pairs of genital setae present. Lamellae with long, very sharp and curved cuspis. Epimeral setal formula: 2 - 1 -3 - 3 or 3 - 1 -3 - 3 .......... Pentabodes P. Balogh, 1984

17 (16) Six or more pairs of genital setae present. Epimeral setal formula: 1 —1— 3 - 3.

18 (19) Six pairs of genital setae present. Setae ad2 and adx in postanal position. Notogastral setae arising also in the anterior part of notogaster .......... Phyllocarabodes Balogh et Mahunka, 1969

19 (18) Ten pairs of genital setae present. Setae ad2 in adanal, setae adi in preanal position. Notogastral setae originating near to each other, along a transversal band in the middle part of notogaster .......... Spathulocepheus Balogh et Mahunka, 1969

20 (1) Twelve or more pairs of notogastral setae present.

21 (28) Six or more pairs of genital setae present.

22 (25) Fourteen pairs of notogastral setae present, no setae in humeral position. Notogaster without structure.

23 (24) A strong transversal prodorsal protuberance present. A median, nearly elliptical notogastral region distinct, all notogastral setae - excepting the posteromarginal four pairs (p1 - p3, r3) - arising in this region .......... Uluguroides Mahunka , 1983

24 (23) Prodorsum without protuberances. Median part of notogaster not separated, notogastral setae arising all over the notogastral surface .......... Trichocarabodes Balogh, 1961

25 (22) Fifteen pairs of notogastral setae present, one pair in humeral position.

26 (27) Notogaster with high protuberances and costulae, a deep hollows present in the dorsosejugal region. Prodorsum with transversal protuberances .......... Apotomocepheus Aoki , 1965

27 (26) Notogaster with strong longitudinal costulae, prodorsum without transversal protuberances. No dorsosejugal hollow or cavity present .......... Neocarabodes Balogh et Mahunka, 1969

28 (21) Four pairs of genital setae present.

29 (36) Less than fourteen pairs of notogastral setae present.

30 (33) Lamellae fused medially and covering the greatest part of prodorsum.

31 (32) Notogaster with three protuberances posteriorly. Two pairs of notogastral setae present near to dorsosejugal suture .......... Pasocepheus Aoki, 1977

32 (31) Notogaster only with one, but large elevation in its posterior part. No notogastral setae present in the dorsosejugal region .......... Opisthocepheus Aoki, 1977

33 (30) Lamellae originating far from eacb other, not fused medially. Interlamellar region free.

34 (35) Twelve pairs of notogastral setae present. No setae in humeral position .......... Tuberocepheus Balogh et Mahunka, 1969

35 (34) Thirteen pairs of notogastral setae present. Two pairs originating on the shoulder .......... Bathocepheus Aoki , 1978

36 (29) Fourteen or more pairs of notogastral setae present.

37 (48) Strong notogastral structure present consisting of costulae, elevations or protuberances.

38 (41) Fifteen pairs of notogastral setae present.

39 (40) Prodorsum with high transversal protuberances, interlamellar setae arising on its anterior margin .......... Machadocepheus Balogh, 1958

40 (39) Prodorsum without transversal protuberances or elevations. Interlamellar setae arising in the interlamellar position .......... Kalloia Mahunka, 1985

41 (38) Fourteen pairs of notogastral setae present.

42 (43) Prodorsum with a high transversal protuberance, interlamellareta es arising on its anterior margin .......... Congocepheus Balogh, 1958

43 (42) Prodorsum without transversal protuberance or elevation. Interlamellar setae arising in the interlamellar region.

44 (45) Lamellae with a lateral projection. Five pairs setae in posteromarginal position .......... Diplobodes Aoki, 1958

45 (44) Lamellae simple. Four pairs of setae in posteromarginal position.

46 (47) Four pairs of genital setae present .......... Gibbicepheus Balogh, 1958

47 (46) Five pairs of genital setae present .......... Gibbibodesgen. n.

48 (37) Notogaster without strong costulae, protuberances or elevations.

49 (58) Fifteen pairs of notogastral setae present.

50 (51) Two pairs of notogastral setae arising in the dorsosejugal region directed forwards. Six pairs of median notogastral setae composing a group and the corresponding pairs directed towards each other .......... Aokiella Balogh et Mahunka, 1967 51 (52) No setae composing a group either in dorsosejugal region directed forwards, or in the median part.

52 (53) Rostral part of prodorsum very high and modified. Rostral and lamellar setae T-shaped (?) .......... Hardybodes Balogh, 1970

53 (52) Rostral part of prodorsum and its setae normally developed.

54 (55) One pair of setae in humeral position. Eight pairs notogastral setae arising in the anterior half of notogaster .......... Berndobodesgen. n.

55 (54) Two pairs of setae in humeral position. Not more than six pairs of setae arising in the anterior half of notogaster.

56 (57) Two pairs of adanal setae present. Aggenital setae arising in aggenital position. The space between the anal and genital apertures smaller than the length of genital plate .......... Archegocepheus Aoki , 1965

57 (56) Three pairs of adanal setae present. Aggenital setae in postgenital position. The space between the genital and anal apertures much longer than the length of genital plate .......... Yoshiobodesgen. n.

58 (49) Fourteen pairs of notogastral setae present.

59 (60) Two pairs of long setae directed forwards in the dorsosejugal region. Tutorium with long spines .......... Odontocepheus Berlese, 1913

60 (59) No long setae directed forwards in the dorsosejugal region. Tutorium simple.

61 (62) Lamellae with an interlamellar protuberance, interlamellar setae arising on its anterior margin. Setae c1 arising much nearer to dorsosejugal suture than to setae c2 .......... Tansocepheus Mahunka , 1983

62 (61) Lamellae simple, prodorsal surface without larger protuberances or elevations. Setae c1 and c2 arising in a transversal line .......... Austrocarabodes Hammer, 1966

  • Mahunka, S. (1986): A survey of the family Carabodidae C. L. Koch, 1836 (Acari: Oribatida). Acta Zoologica Hungarica 32, 73-135: 80-82, URL:http://unknown
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Family Carabodidae C. L. Koch, 1836

C. L. Koch, 1836: 3, 15 (?)

Diagnosis: Prodorsum with lamellae, running marginally. Bothridium opened laterally, funnel-shaped. Tutorium observable but without free cuspis. Dorsosejugal suture present. Notogastral cerotegument always ornamented by foveolae or pustules, also stronger chitinous structure often present. Chelicerae normal, diarthric labiogenal articulation present. Coxisternal region large, mostly well divided by apodemes and epimeral borders. Circumpedal carina absent. Anal and genital apertures situated near to each other. Lyrifissure lad originating far from anal opening, in paraanal position. All legs monodactylous. Femur of legs 2-4 with sharp ventral blades. Tarsus and tibia gradually thickened to their contact, genu minute.

Typus generis: Carabodes C. L. Koch, 1836.

  • Mahunka, S. (1986): A survey of the family Carabodidae C. L. Koch, 1836 (Acari: Oribatida). Acta Zoologica Hungarica 32, 73-135: 78-78, URL:http://unknown
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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

(" Carabodides " in Koch 1843, p. 96)

 

Diagnose: Grobe Skulptur auf PD und NG; RO gerundet, Lam breit, an PD-Seitenrand, mit breiten Csp, ohne Trl; in meist groß , entfernt von PD-Hinterand; Tut mit freier Spitze; NG-Schultern mit gerundeten bis eckigen Vorsprüngen , 10-14 ng, 4 g, 1 ag, 3 ad, 2 an; B 1-krlg; Ta eng an 77.

 

1. Körperform schlank oval; 14 Paar sehr lange Notogasterborsten [131a]. (+) Cuspis lang vorgezogen; Lamellarborsten inserieren weit hinten ........................................................ Odontocepheus Berlese , 1913

 

- Körperform breit oval; 10(-11) Paar kurze bis mäßig lange Notogasterborsten. (+) Ohne vorgezogene Cuspis...................................................... Carabodes C. L. Koch, 1835

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Weigmann, G.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 129
Specimens with Sequences: 104
Specimens with Barcodes: 89
Species: 8
Species With Barcodes: 8
Public Records: 45
Public Species: 3
Public BINs: 5
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

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