The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Brook, I. (1994). Infection Caused by Propionibacterium in Children. Clinical Pediatrics, 33(8), 485–490.
  • Brucker, R. M., & Bordenstein, S. R. (2012). The roles of host evolutionary relationships (genus: Nasonia) and development in structuring microbial communities. Evolution; international journal of organic evolution, 66(2), 349–62.
  • Bruggemann, H., Henne, A., Hoster, F., Liesegang, H., Wiezer, A., Strittmatter, A., Hujer, S., Durre, P., & Gottschalk, G. (2004). The complete genome sequence of Propionibacterium acnes, a commensal of human skin. Science, 305(5684), 671-673.
  • Brzuszkiewicz E., Weiner J., Wollherr A., Thürmer A., Hüpeden J., et al. (2011) Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics of Propionibacterium acnes. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21581. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021581
  • Butler-Wu, S. M., Sengupta, D. J., Kittichotirat, W., Matsen, F. a, & Bumgarner, R. E. (2011). Genome sequence of a novel species, Propionibacterium humerusii. Journal of bacteriology, 193(14), 3678.
  • Chung, S., Kim, J. S., Seo, S. W., Ra, E. K., Joo, S.-I., Kim, S. Y., Park, S. S., et al. (2011). A case of brain abscess caused by Propionibacterium acnes 13 months after neurosurgery and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The Korean journal of laboratory medicine, 31(2), 122–6.
  • Cogen, A. L., Nizet, V., & Gallo, R. L. (2009). NIH Public Access. British Journal of Dermatology, 158(3), 442–455.
  • Cummins, C. S., & Johnson, J. L. (1986). Genus I. Propionibacterium, 1346–1353. In: P. H. A. Sneath, N. S. Mair, M. E. Sharpe, & J. G. Holt (Eds.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 2. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
  • Dessinioti, C., & Katsambas, A. D. (2010). The role of Propionibacterium acnes in acne pathogenesis: facts and controversies. Clinics in dermatology, 28(1), 2–7.
  • Deutsch, S.-M., Parayre, S., Bouchoux, A., Guyomarc’h, F., Dewulf, J., Dols-Lafargue, M., Baglinière, F., et al. (2012). Contribution of surface β-glucan polysaccharide to physicochemical and immunomodulatory properties of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Applied and environmental microbiology, 78(6), 1765–75.
  • Falentin, H., Deutsch, S.-M., Jan, G., Loux, V., Thierry, A., Parayre, S., Maillard, M.-B., et al. (2010). The complete genome of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA1, a hardy actinobacterium with food and probiotic applications. PloS one, 5(7), 1-12.
  • Farrar, M. D., Howson, K. M., Emmott, J. E., Bojar, R. a, & Holland, K. T. (2007). Characterisation of cryptic plasmid pPG01 from Propionibacterium granulosum, the first plasmid to be isolated from a member of the cutaneous propionibacteria. Plasmid, 58(1), 68–75.
  • Faye, T., Brede, D. A., Langsrud, T., Ingolf, F., Holo, H., & Nes, I. F. (2002). An Antimicrobial Peptide Is Produced by Extracellular Processing of a Protein from Propionibacterium jensenii An Antimicrobial Peptide Is Produced by Extracellular Processing of a Protein from Propionibacterium jensenii. Journal of bacteriology, 184(13), 3649–3656.
  • Faye, T., Holo, H., Langsrud, T., Nes, I. F., & Brede, D. a. (2011). The unconventional antimicrobial peptides of the classical propionibacteria. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 89(3), 549–54.
  • Koussemon, M., Combet-blanc, Y., Patel, B. K. C., Cayol, J., Thomas, P., Garcia, J., & Ollivier, B. (2001). Propionibacterium microaerophilum sp. nov., a microaerophilic bacterium isolated from olive mill wastewater. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 51, 1373–1382.
  • Leyden, J. J., McGinley, K. J., Mills, O. H., & Kligman, A. M. (1975). Propionibacterium Levels in Patients with and without Acne Vulgaris. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 65(4), 382–384.
  • McDowell, A., Barnard, E., Nagy, I., Gao, A., Tomida, S., Li, H., Eady, A., et al. (2012). An Expanded Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Propionibacterium acnes: Investigation of “Pathogenic”, “Commensal” and Antibiotic Resistant Strains. PloS one, 7(7), 1-14.
  • Pinto-tomás, A. A. A., Sittenfeld, A., Uribe-lorío, L., Mora, M., Janzen, D. H., Goodman, R. M., Holly, M., et al. (2011). Comparison of Midgut Bacterial Diversity in Tropical Caterpillars ( Lepidoptera : Saturniidae ) Fed on Different Diets Comparison of Midgut Bacterial Diversity in Tropical Caterpillars ( Lepidoptera : Saturniidae ) Fed on Different Diets. Environmental Entomology, 40(5), 1111-1122.
  • Piveteau, P. (1999). Metabolism of lactate and sugars by dairy propionibacteria: A review. Le Lait, 79(1), 23–41.
  • Schwenninger, S. M., & Meile, L. (2004). A Mixed Culture of Propionibacterium jensenii and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei Inhibits Food Spoilage Yeasts. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 27(2), 229.
  • WoRMS (2015). Propionibacterium. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wunderink, H. F., Lashley, E. E. L. O., van Poelgeest, M. I. E., Gaarenstroom, K. N., Claas, E. C. J., & Kuijper, E. J. (2011). Pelvic actinomycosis-like disease due to Propionibacterium propionicum after hysteroscopic removal of an intrauterine device. Journal of clinical microbiology, 49(1), 466–8.


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