Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Tail prevents sinking: sturgeons
 

Tails of sharks and sturgeons keep these heavy-bodied animals from sinking because they are assymetrical and produce an upward-directed torque.

         
  "A number of good swimmers among the shark and sturgeon families are heavier than water. If they did not mobilize vertical forces, they would slowly but inevitably sink to the bottom. Since they are continuously in motion, nature was able to solve their weight problem in a very elegant way: The sickle-shaped tail is asymmetrical. Because the upper half is larger than the lower, its resistance produces upward directed torque. In addition, the pectoral fins are shaped like small wings and function as elevators, producing and controlling vertical forces." (Tributsch 1984:54)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Tributsch, H. 1984. How life learned to live. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 218 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 582
Specimens with Sequences: 518
Specimens with Barcodes: 503
Species: 26
Species With Barcodes: 24
Public Records: 181
Public Species: 18
Public BINs: 12
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Wikipedia

Sturgeon

For other uses, see Sturgeon (disambiguation).
Beluga sturgeon in an aquarium.

Sturgeon is the common name used for some 25 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus, and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. The term includes over 20 species commonly referred to as sturgeon and several closely related species that have distinct common names, notably sterlet, kaluga, and beluga. Collectively, the family is also known as the true sturgeons. Sturgeon is sometimes used more exclusively to refer to the species in the two best-known genera, Acipenser, and Huso. Sturgeons have been referred to as "primitive fishes" because their morphological characters have remained relatively unchanged since the earliest fossil record.[2][3]

Sturgeons are native to subtropical, temperate and sub-Arctic rivers, lakes and coastlines of Eurasia and North America.[4] They are distinctive for their elongated bodies, lack of scales, and occasional great size: sturgeons ranging from 7–12 feet (2-3½ m) in length are common, and some species grow up to 18 feet (5.5 m). Most sturgeons are anadromous bottom-feeders, spawning upstream and feeding in river deltas and estuaries. While some are entirely freshwater, a very few venture into the open ocean beyond near coastal areas.

Several species of sturgeons are harvested for their roe, which is made into caviar — a luxury food which makes some sturgeons pound for pound the most valuable of all harvested fish. Because they are slow-growing and mature very late in life, they are particularly vulnerable to exploitation and to other threats, including pollution and habitat fragmentation. Most species of sturgeons are currently considered to be at risk of extinction, making them more critically endangered than any other group of species.[5]

Evolution[edit]

Acipenseriform fishes appeared in the fossil record approximately 200 million years ago, around the very end of the Triassic, making them among the most ancient of actinopterygian fishes. True sturgeons appear in the fossil record during the Upper Cretaceous. In that time, sturgeons have undergone remarkably little morphological change, indicating their evolution has been exceptionally slow and earning them informal status as living fossils.[6][7] This is explained in part by the long generation interval, tolerance for wide ranges of temperature and salinity, lack of predators due to size and bony plated armor, or scutes, and the abundance of prey items in the benthic environment. Although their evolution has been remarkably slow, they are a highly evolved relict species, and do not closely resemble their ancestral chondrosteans. They do however still share several primitive characteristics, such as heterocercal tail, reduced squamation, more fin rays than supporting bony elements, and unique jaw suspension.[8]

Despite the existence of a fossil record, full classification and phylogeny of the sturgeon species has been difficult to determine, in part due to the high individual and ontogenic variation, including geographical clines in certain features, such as rostrum shape, number of scutes and body length. A further confounding factor is the peculiar ability of sturgeons to produce reproductively viable hybrids, even between species assigned to different genera. While ray-finned fishes have a long evolutionary history culminating in our most familiar fishes, past adaptive radiations have left only a few survivors, like sturgeons and garfish.[9]

The wide range of the acipenserids and their endangered status have made collection of systematic materials difficult. These factors have led researchers in the past to identify over 40 additional species that were rejected by later workers.[10] It is still unclear whether the species in the Acipenser and Huso genera are monophyletic (descended from one ancestor) or paraphyletic (descended from many ancestors)—though it is clear that the morphologically motivated division between these two genera is not supported by the genetic evidence. There is an ongoing effort to resolve the taxonomic confusion using a continuing synthesis of systematic data and molecular techniques.[7][11]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Sturgeons retain several primitive characters among the bony fishes. Along with other members of the subclass Chondrostei, they are unique among bony fishes because the skeleton is almost entirely cartilaginous. Notably, however, the cartilagineous skeleton is not a primitive character, but a derived one: sturgeon ancestors had bony skeletons.[8][12][13] They also lack vertebral centra, and are partially covered with bony plates called scutes rather than scales. They also have four barbels—tactile organs that precede their toothless wide mouths. They navigate their riverine habitats traveling just off the bottom with their barbels dragging along gravel, or murky substrate. Sturgeon are recognizable for their elongated bodies, flattened rostra, distinctive scutes and barbels, and elongated upper tail lobes. The skeletal support for the paired fins of ray-finned fish is inside the body wall, and all one can see externally are the ray-like structures in the webbing of the fins themselves.

They are primarily benthic feeders, and use their barbels to detect shells, crustaceans, and small fish. They feed by extending their syphon-like mouths to suck food from the benthos. Having no teeth, they are unable to seize prey, though larger specimens can swallow very large prey items, including whole salmon.[14]

Sturgeon have been referred to as both the Leviathans and Methuselahs of freshwater fish. They are among the largest fish: some beluga (Huso huso) in the Caspian Sea reportedly attain over 5.5 m (18 ft) and 2000 kg[15] (4400 lb) while for kaluga (H. dauricus) in the Amur River, similar lengths and over 1000 kg (2200 lb) weights have been reported.[16] They are also among the longest-lived of the fishes, some living well over 100 years and attaining sexual maturity at 20 years or more.[17] The combination of slow growth and reproductive rates and the extremely high value placed on mature, egg-bearing females make sturgeon particularly vulnerable to overfishing.

Sturgeons are polyploid; some species have four, eight, or 16 sets of chromosomes.[18]

Range and habitat[edit]

Sturgeon range from subtropical to subarctic waters in North America and Eurasia. In North America, they range along the Atlantic Coast from the Gulf of Mexico to Newfoundland, including the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence, Missouri, and Mississippi Rivers, as well as along the West Coast in major rivers from California and Idaho to British Columbia. They occur along the European Atlantic coast, including the Mediterranean basin, in the rivers that flow into the Black, Azov, and Caspian Seas (Danube, Dnepr, Volga and Don), the north-flowing rivers of Russia that feed the Arctic Ocean (Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Kolyma), in the rivers of Central Asia (Amu Darya and Syr Darya) and Lake Baikal. In the Pacific Ocean, they are found in the Amur River along the Russian-Chinese border, on Sakhalin Island, and in the Yangtze and other rivers in northeast China.[17][19]

Throughout this extensive range, almost all species are highly threatened or vulnerable to extinction due to a combination of habitat destruction, overfishing, and pollution.[19]

No species are known to naturally occur south of the equator, though attempts at sturgeon aquaculture are being made in Uruguay, South Africa, and other places.[20]

Most species are at least partially anadromous, spawning in fresh water and feeding in nutrient-rich, brackish waters of estuaries or undergoing significant migrations along coastlines. However, some species have evolved purely freshwater existences, such as the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and the Baikal sturgeon (A. baerii baicalensis), or have been forced into them by anthropogenic or natural impoundment of their native rivers, as in the case of some subpopulations of white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) in the Columbia River[21] and Siberian sturgeon (A. baerii) in the Ob basin.[22]

Conservation status[edit]

Because of their long reproductive cycles, long migrations, and sensitivity to environmental conditions, many species are under severe threat from overfishing,[23] poaching, water pollution, and damming of rivers.[24] There is also a noticeable decline in sturgeon populations as the demand for caviar increases. According to the IUCN, over 85% of sturgeon species are classified as at risk of extinction, making them more critically endangered than any other group of species.[5][25]

Uses[edit]

Woman selling sturgeon at a market in Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan
The underside and mouth of a sturgeon

Globally, sturgeon fisheries are of great value, primarily as a source for caviar, but also for flesh.

Before 1800, swim bladders of sturgeon (primarily Beluga sturgeon from Russia) were used as a source of isinglass, a form of collagen used historically for the clarification of beer, as a predecessor for gelatin, and to preserve parchments.[26]

The Jewish law of kashrut, which only permits the consumption of fish with scales, forbids sturgeon, as they have ganoid scales instead of the permitted ctenoid and cycloid scales. While all Orthodox groups forbid the consumption of sturgeon, some conservative groups do allow it.[27][28] The theological debate over its kosher status can be traced back to such 19th-century reformers as Aron Chorin, though its consumption was already common in European Jewish communities.[29] It remains a high-end staple of many Jewish delicatessen and some speciality food shops.

In England and Wales, the sturgeon, along with whales and porpoises, is a royal fish, and every sturgeon caught in those countries is the property of the Crown.

Classification[edit]

In currently accepted taxonomy, the family Acipenseridae is subdivided into two subfamilies, Acipenserinae, including the genera Acipenser and Huso, and Scaphirhynchinae, including the genera Scaphirhynchus and Pseudosaphirhynchus.[19]

SubfamilyGeneraImageSpeciesCommon nameMax reportedFish-
base
FAOIUCN status
LengthWeightAge
A

c

i

p

e

n

s

e

r

i

d

a

e
AcipenserinaeAcipenserSiberian sturgeonAcipenser baeriiSiberian sturgeon200 cm210 kg60 yrs[30][31]EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[32]
Acipenser brevirostrum (NY).jpgAcipenser brevirostrumShortnose sturgeon143 cm23 kg67 yrs[33][34]EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[35]
Acipenser dabryanus.jpgAcipenser dabryanusYangtze sturgeon250 cm[36][37]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[38]
Acipenser fulvescens 1908.jpgAcipenser fulvescensLake sturgeon274 cm125 kg152 yrs[39][40]LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[41]
Acipenser gueldenstaedtii.jpgAcipenser gueldenstaedtiiRussian sturgeon236 cm115 kg46 yrs[42][43]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[44]
Acipenser medirostris.jpgAcipenser medirostrisGreen sturgeon250 cm159 kg60 yrs[45][46]NT IUCN 3 1.svg Near threatened[47]
Acipenser mikadoiSakhalin sturgeon150 cm[48][49]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[50]
Acipenser naccarii.jpgAcipenser naccariiAdriatic sturgeon200 cm25 kg[51][52]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[53]
Acipenser nudiventris.jpgAcipenser nudiventrisFringebarbel sturgeon200 cm80 kg[54][55]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[56]
Acipenser oxyrhynchus.jpgAcipenser oxyrinchusAtlantic or Gulf sturgeon403 cm60 yrs[57][58]NT IUCN 3 1.svg Near threatened[59]
Acipenser persicus.jpgAcipenser persicusPersian sturgeon242 cm70 kg[60]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[61]
Acipenser ruthenus1.jpgAcipenser ruthenusSterlet125 cm16 kg20 yrs[62][63]VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[64]
Acipenser schrenckiiAmur sturgeon300 cm190 kg65 yrs[65][66]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[67]
Acipenser sinensis.JPGAcipenser sinensisChinese sturgeon130 cm600 kg13 yrs[68][69]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[70]
Acipenser stellatus.jpgAcipenser stellatusStarry sturgeon220 cm80 kg27 yrs[71][72]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[73]
Acipenser sturio.jpgAcipenser sturioEuropean sea sturgeon600 cm400 kg100 yrs[74][75]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[76]
Acipenser transmontanus1.jpgAcipenser transmontanusWhite sturgeon610 cm816 kg104 yrs[77][78]LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[79]
HusoHuso dauricusKaluga sturgeon560 cm1000 kg80 yrs[80][81]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[82]
Huso huso viza.jpgHuso husoBeluga sturgeon800 cm3200 kg118 yrs[83][84]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[85]
Scaphi-
rhynchinae
Scaphi-
rhynchus
Scaphirhynchus albus.jpgScaphirhynchus albusPallid sturgeon200 cm130 kg41 yrs[86][87]EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[88]
Scaphirhynchus platorynchus.jpgScaphirhynchus platorynchusShovelnose sturgeon100 cm7 kg43 yrs[89][90]VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[91]
Scaphirhynchus suttkusi.jpgScaphirhynchus suttkusiAlabama sturgeon[92]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[93]
Pseudo-
scaphi-
rhynchus
Pseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoi.jpgPseudoscaphirhynchus fedtschenkoiSyr Darya sturgeon65 cm[94]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[95]
Pseudoscaphirhynchus hermanniDwarf sturgeon28 cm0.5 kg6 yrs[96][97]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[98]
Pseudoscaphirhynchus kaufmanniAmu Darya sturgeon75 cm2 kg[99][100]CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[101]

Species[edit]

A young lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2009). "Acipenseridae" in FishBase. January 2009 version.
  2. ^ Chesapeake Bay Field Office. "Atlantic Sturgeon". U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Lake sturgeon". Minnesota Dept. of Natural Resources. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Biodiversity II: Primitive Bony Fishes and The Rise of Modern Teleosts". Biology of Fishes, Fish/Biol 311. University of Washington. Retrieved May 30, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Sturgeon more critically endangered than any other group of species". IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature. 18 March 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2010. 
  6. ^ B. G. Gardiner (1984) Sturgeons as living fossils. Pp. 148–152 in N. Eldredge and S.M. Stanley, eds. Living fossils. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  7. ^ a b J. Krieger and P.A. Fuerst. (2002) Evidence for a Slowed Rate of Molecular Evolution in the Order Acipenseriformes Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:891-897.
  8. ^ a b Gene Helfman; Bruce B. Collette; Douglas E. Facey; Brian W. Bowen (3 April 2009). The Diversity of Fishes: Biology, Evolution, and Ecology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 252–. ISBN 978-1-4443-1190-7. 
  9. ^ "Craniata, (2) Subclass Actinopterygii-the ray-finned fishes". San Francisco State University. Retrieved May 31, 2014. 
  10. ^ W. E. Bemis, E. K. Findeis, and L. Grande. (1997). An overview of Acipenseriformes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 48:25–71.
  11. ^ F. Fontana, J. Tagliavini, L. Congiu (2001) Sturgeon genetics and cytogenetics: recent advancements and perspectives. Genetica 111: 359–373
  12. ^ Caleb E. Finch (16 May 1994). Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome. University of Chicago Press. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-0-226-24889-9. 
  13. ^ J. D. McPhail (28 September 2007). Freshwater Fishes of British Columbia (The). University of Alberta. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-88864-853-2. 
  14. ^ Sergei F. Zolotukhin and Nina F. Kaplanova. (2007) Injuries of Salmon in the Amur River and its Estuary as an Index of the Adult Fish Mortality in the Period of Sea Migrations. NPAFC Technical Report No. 4. [1]
  15. ^ Frimodt, C., (1995). Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England. 215 p.
  16. ^ Krykhtin, M.L. and V.G. Svirskii (1997). Endemic sturgeons of the Amur River: kaluga, Huso dauricus, and Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii. Environ. Biol. Fish. 48(1/4):231-239.
  17. ^ a b Berg, L.S. (1962). Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. volume 1, 4th edition. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948).
  18. ^ Anderson, Rachel (2004). "Shortnose Sturgeon". McGill University. Archived from the original on 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 
  19. ^ a b c Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2007). "Acipenseriformes" in FishBase. 12 2007 version.
  20. ^ LA. Burtzev (1999) The History of Global Sturgeon Aquaculture. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15 (4-5), 325–325. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.1999.tb00336.x
  21. ^ S. Duke, P. Anders, G. Ennis, R. Hallock, J. Hammond, S. Ireland, J. Laufle, R. Lauzier, L. Lockhard, B. Marotz, V.L. Paragamian, R. Westerhof (1999) Recovery plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), Journal of Applied Ichthyology 15 (4-5), 157–163.
  22. ^ G.I. Ruban, 1999. The Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Brandt: Structure and Ecology of the Species, Moscow, GEOS. 235 pp (in Russian).
  23. ^ Clover, Charles. 2004. The End of the Line: How overfishing is changing the world and what we eat. Ebury Press, London. ISBN 0-09-189780-7
  24. ^ Pallid Sturgeon - Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks
  25. ^ Species, status and population trend of Sturgeon on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (pdf)
  26. ^ Davidson, Alan (1999). ""Isinglass"". Oxford Companion to Food. p. 407. ISBN 0-19-211579-0. 
  27. ^ http://cor.ca/en/15#12
  28. ^ http://www.bluethread.com/kashrut/sturgeon.html
  29. ^ Lupovich, Howard (2010). "7". Jews and Judaism in World History. p. 258. ISBN 0-203-86197-3. 
  30. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Acipenser baerii" in FishBase. November 2013 version.
  31. ^ Acipenser baerii (Brandt, 1869) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  32. ^ Ruban, G. & Bin Zhu (2010). "Acipenser baerii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  33. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser brevirostrum" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  34. ^ Acipenser brevirostrum (Lesueur, 1818) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  35. ^ Friedland, K.D. & Kynard, B. (2004). "Acipenser brevirostrum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  36. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser dabryanus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  37. ^ Acipenser dabryanus (A. H. A. Duméril, 1869) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  38. ^ Qiwei, W. (2010). "Acipenser dabryanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  39. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser fulvescens" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  40. ^ Acipenser fulvescens (Rafinesque) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  41. ^ St. Pierre, R. & Runstrom, A. (2004). "Acipenser fulvescens". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  42. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser gueldenstaedtii" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  43. ^ Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (J. F. Brandt & Ratzeburg, 1833) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  44. ^ Gesner, J., Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2010). "Acipenser gueldenstaedtii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  45. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser medirostris" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  46. ^ Acipenser medirostris (Ayres, 1854) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  47. ^ St. Pierre, R. & Campbell, R.R. (2006). "Acipenser medirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  48. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser mikadoi" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  49. ^ Acipenser mikadoi (Hilgendorf, 1892) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  50. ^ Mugue, N. (2010). "Acipenser mikadoi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  51. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser naccarii" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  52. ^ Acipenser naccarii (Bonaparte, 1836) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  53. ^ Bronzi, P., Congiu, L., Rossi, R., Zerunian, S. & Arlati , G. (2011). "Acipenser naccarii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  54. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser nudiventris" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  55. ^ Acipenser nudiventris (Lovetsky, 1828) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  56. ^ Gesner, J., Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2010). "Acipenser nudiventris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  57. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser oxyrinchus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  58. ^ Acipenser oxyrinchus (Vladykov, 1955) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  59. ^ St. Pierre, R. & Parauka, F.M. (2006). "Acipenser oxyrinchus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  60. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser persicus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  61. ^ Gesner, J., Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2010). "Acipenser persicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  62. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser ruthenus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  63. ^ Acipenser ruthenus (Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  64. ^ Gesner, J., Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2010). "Acipenser ruthenus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  65. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser schrenckii" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  66. ^ Acipenser schrenckii (J. F. Brandt, 1869) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  67. ^ Ruban, G. & Qiwei, W. (2010). "Acipenser schrenckii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  68. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser sinensis" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  69. ^ Acipenser sinensis (J. E. Gray, 1835) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  70. ^ Qiwei, W. (2011). "Acipenser sinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  71. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser stellatus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  72. ^ Acipenser stellatus (Pallas, 1771) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  73. ^ Qiwei, W. (2010). "Acipenser stellatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  74. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser sturio" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  75. ^ Acipenser sturio (Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  76. ^ Gesner, J., Williot, P., Rochard, E., Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2010). "Acipenser sturio". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  77. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acipenser transmontanus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  78. ^ Acipenser transmontanus (J. Richardson, 1836) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  79. ^ Duke, S., Down, T., Ptolemy, J., Hammond, J. & Spence, C. (2004). "Acipenser transmontanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  80. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Huso dauricus" in FishBase. November 2012 version.
  81. ^ Huso dauricus (Georgi, 1775) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  82. ^ Ruban, G. & Qiwei, W. (2010). "Huso dauricus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
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References[edit]

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