Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Tropical. Distribution: Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. A single spine in pelvic fin; soft rays 5-8 (mode 7). Dorsal fin long with 10-13 spines and a notched soft-rayed part. Forked caudal fin; principal caudal rays 18 or 19. Large and very rough ctenoid scales. Large eyes. Spiny-edged operculum. Vertebrae 26 or 27. Usually reddish in color. Most are nocturnal. Usually cryptic during the day in crevices or beneath ledges of reefs. Most species in shallow water from shoreline to 100 m depth. Adults usually demersal; the very young planktonic. About 61 cm maximum length.
  • MASDEA (1997).
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:1,037Public Records:353
Specimens with Sequences:881Public Species:44
Specimens with Barcodes:875Public BINs:42
Species:66         
Species With Barcodes:63         
          
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Holocentridae

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Holocentridae

The Holocentridae are a family of ray-finned fish, belonging to the order Beryciformes with the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae typically known as squirrelfish, while the members of Myripristinae typically are known as soldierfish. In Hawaii, they are known as menpachi.

They are found in tropical parts of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, with the greatest species richness near reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Most are found at depths from the shoreline to 100 m (330 ft), but some, notably the members of the genus Ostichthys, are generally found far deeper. Being largely or entirely nocturnal, they have relatively large eyes. During the day, they typically remain hidden in crevices, caves, or under ledges.[2] Red and silvery colours dominate. The preopercle spines (near the gill opening) of the members of the subfamily Holocentrinae are venomous, and can give painful wounds. Most have a maximum length of 15–35 cm (6–14 in), but Sargocentron iota barely reaches 8 cm (3 in), and S. spiniferum and Holocentrus adscensionis can reach more than 50 cm (20 in). The squirrelfishes mainly feed on small fishes and benthic invertebrates,[2] while the soldierfishes typically feed on zooplankton. The larvae are pelagic, unlike the adults, and can be found far out to sea.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). "Holocentridae" in FishBase. October 2012 version.
  2. ^ a b c Paxton, John R. (1998). Paxton, J.R. & Eschmeyer, W.N., ed. Encyclopedia of Fishes. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 161. ISBN 0-12-547665-5. 
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