Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Hector's dolphin (C. hectori) is endemic to New Zealand waters (Dawson and Slooten 1988). The North Island subpopulation (C. h. maui) is currently restricted to the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand, between Taranaki and Ninety Mile Beach (Russell 1999; Baker et al. 2002; Slooten et al. 2005, 2006). The range of the subspecies has undergone a marked reduction (Dawson et al. 2001; Slooten et al. 2005). Previous sightings off the east coast of the North Island (e.g., Russell 1999) suggest either that there used to be a much larger contiguous population or that a separate subpopulation on the North Island has already become extinct.

The map shows where the species may occur based on oceanography. The species has not been recorded for all the states within the hypothetical range as shown on the map. States for which confirmed records of the species exist are included in the list of native range states.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology

The habits and biology of Hector's dolphins in the South Island have been well studied in the last couple of decades (Dawson 2002) and there has been increasing research effort on Maui’s dolphins also. Maui’s dolphins appear to have similar behaviour and ecology to those belonging to the South Island subspecies.

There is little information on the feeding ecology of Maui’s dolphins but it is thought to be broadly similar to that of other Hector's dolphins, which feed opportunistically on several species of small fish and squid (Dawson 2002).


Systems
  • Marine
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
CR
Critically Endangered

Red List Criteria
A4cd; C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Reeves, R.R., Dawson, S.M., Jefferson, T.A., Karczmarski, L., Laidre, K., O’Corry-Crowe, G., Rojas-Bracho, L., Secchi, E.R., Slooten, E., Smith, B.D., Wang, J.Y. & Zhou, K.

Reviewer/s
Brownell Jr., R.L. & Cooke, J.

Contributor/s

Justification
The North Island Hector’s dolphin subspecies is considered to be Critically Endangered A4cd and C2a(ii) due to an ongoing and projected decline of greater than 80% over 3 generations (approx. 39 years, Slooten et al. 2000) considering both the past and the future, and there are clearly fewer than 250 mature individuals remaining. For criterion A4cd, the estimated rate of decline over the three generations from 1970 to 2009 is 93% (Slooten 2007; also see Burkhart and Slooten 2003; Martien et al. 1999). Generation length was estimated at 13 years for Hector’s dolphin on the basis of an age-structured model (Slooten et al. 2000). The principal cause of the decline (bycatch in fisheries) has not ceased. The subspecies also meets criterion C2a(ii) for CR, as the single subpopulation contains fewer than 250 mature individuals, and a continuing decline is inferred based on the fact that gillnet use continues in areas occupied (currently and formerly) by the subspecies (e.g., harbours and the southern part of the range) and trawling continues throughout the subspecies’ range. The distribution of the subspecies is highly fragmented and approximately 90% of the individuals are found in a small part of the range – a 22 nautical mile stretch of coastline between Manukau Harbour and Port Waikato, in the centre of the subspecies’ range. There is also evidence for a decline in geographic range, but further information is needed to quantify this threat. The population size is estimated at 111 individuals (95% CI 48-252; Slooten et al. 2005) and the proportion of mature individuals is estimated at 50% (Slooten et al. 2000; Taylor et al. 2007). Given these figures, the subspecies is also very close to meeting criterion D for CR.

History
  • 2000
    Critically Endangered
  • 2000
    Critically Endangered
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Population

Population

Studies of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA show that North Island Hector's dolphins are genetically distinct from any of the South Island subpopulations (Pichler et al. 1998). Every sampled individual (n=11) in the contemporary NorthIsland subpopulation has a single maternal lineage that has not been detected in the South Island (n=97). In addition, these animals have unique microsatellite alleles at three of the ten loci surveyed. A further four loci have alleles that are either fixed or at high frequency, yet are rare in South Island subpopulations. Such differences over such a small geographic scale have not been observed in any other genetic studies of marine mammals (Dawson et al. 2001). For example, two subspecies of Commerson's dolphin show less genetic divergence yet are separated by 8,500 km. The North Island subpopulation also has morphological and coloration differences, and taken together this evidence has allowed it to be recognized as a distinct subspecies (Baker et al. 2002).

Recent surveys show that the South Island Hector’s dolphin populations collectively number about 7,270 individuals (CV=15.8%; Dawson et al. 2004), while the NorthIsland population numbers around 111 (CV=44%; Slooten et al. 2006b). The latter’s range appears to have been drastically reduced (Russell 1999; Dawson et al. 2001; Slooten et al. 2005).

An age-structured model (Slooten et al. 2000) indicates that approximately 50% of Hector’s dolphins are mature individuals. If about half of the estimated 111 Maui’s dolphins are mature, and half of them are females, it means that only around 28 mature females remain.

Population viability analyses using current abundance together with entanglement rates and historical and current fishing effort indicated a high risk of decline, and that gillnet entanglement had caused a decline since 1970 in the North Island subspecies population (Martien et al. 1999; Slooten 2007). Estimated abundance in the late 1990s was around 25% of the 1970 estimate of 437 individuals (Martien et al. 1999), and the most recent estimate of depletion is that about 7% of the 1970 population remains (Slooten 2007).


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats

Like the species as a whole, Maui’s dolphin faces serious pressures from human activities. The main threat is entanglement in gillnets (Dawson et al. 2001; Slooten 2005; Slooten et al. 2006b). Of 14 stranded dolphins in which cause of death could be determined, seven had clear net markings, and an additional four had injuries suggestive of removal from nets (Dawson et al. 2001). Recreational gillnet fishing may be a more serious problem than commercial gillnet fishing, due to the proximity of Auckland, New Zealand’s largest city. Bycatches in trawl nets also have been reported. Additional potential threats include those listed for Hector’s dolphin, i.e. pollution, disease, vessel traffic and habitat modification (Stone and Yoshinaga 2000) although there is no direct evidence that pollution or disease is affecting this subspecies.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

The species is listed in Appendix II of CITES.

The subspecies is restricted to waters of New Zealand; therefore national conservation measures are discussed here. The New Zealand Marine Mammals Protection Act (MMPA) prohibits deliberate killing or injury of marine mammals. Bycatch in fishing gear is not illegal but can be regulated. Hector's Dolphins are listed as threatened under New Zealand legislation.

The New Zealand Government has created a protected area for C. h. maui where gillnetting is prohibited along 390 km of coastline, but the area does not extend far enough south to cover the range of recent sightings and falls well short of covering the historic range. The latter has clear implications for the prospects of recovery. Gillnetting continues inside harbors, trawling is not restricted, and there are no observer programs to estimate the number of dolphins taken (Slooten et al. 2005, 2006b).

Discussions between the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries and Department of Conservation are currently (early 2008) underway to develop a comprehensive management plan for Hector’s dolphin (including Maui’s dolphin). Species-wide, a continuing high level of bycatch mortality indicates that stronger protection from entanglement in commercial and recreational fisheries is needed. Protected areas, reduced gillnet fishing effort, and changes in fishing methods have been recommended as necessary to ensure the long-term persistence of Maui’s dolphin (e.g. Martien et al. 1999, Burkhart and Slooten 2003, Slooten 2007; DOC and Mfish 2007). Meetings of stakeholders have concluded that fishery mortality must be reduced to zero to allow the subspecies to recover (Dawson et al. 2001; Slooten et al. 2006b). Recent surveys (Dawson et al. 2004, Slooten et al. 2005, 2006a,b) indicate that restricting gillnet fisheries to waters >100m deep would have a major benefit in terms of reducing bycatch. In waters <100m deep it would also be advisable to institute observer programs on any trawl fisheries that operate in the habitat of Maui’s dolphin habitat.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

IUCN Red List Category

Critically Endangered (CR)
  • IUCN (2008) Cetacean update of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
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Wikipedia

Maui's dolphin

Maui's dolphin or popoto (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) is the world's rarest and smallest known subspecies of dolphin.[1] They are a subspecies of the Hector's dolphin. Maui's dolphin are only found off the west coast of New Zealand's North Island. Hector's and Maui's are New Zealand's only endemic cetaceans.[2] As of 2012, it is estimated that there are 55 Maui's dolphins at least one year old in the world.[3] Maui's dolphins are generally found close to shore in groups or pods of several dolphin. They are often seen in water shallower than 20 metres deep, but may also range further offshore.

In 2012, the majority of a government-appointed panel of experts estimated that 4.95 Maui's were killed each year due to set-netting and trawling. In May 2014, the World Wildlife Fund in New Zealand launched "The Last 55" campaign, calling for a full ban over what it believed is their entire range.[4][5] The International Whaling Commission supports more fishing restrictions but some in the New Zealand government are opposed to the proposals.[6][7][8] In June 2014, the government decided to open up 3000 km2 of the West Coast North Island Marine Mammal Sanctuary - the main habitat of the Maui's dolphin - for oil drilling. This amounts to one quarter of the total sanctuary area.[9]

Etymology[edit]

The word "Maui" from the Maui's dolphin's name comes from te Ika-a-Māui, the Māori word for New Zealand's North Island. However, the Māori word for the dolphin itself is popoto.[10]

Genetics[edit]

In 2002, Maui's dolphins were classified as a sub-species of Hector's dolphin. Previously, they had been known as the North Island Hector's Dolphin. Dr Alan Baker found that genetic and skeletal differences in the Maui's dolphins made them distinct from others in the Hector's species.[11] These significant differences over a small geographical distance have not been found in any other studies of marine mammals.[12] There have so far been 26 different mitochondrial DNA identification haplotypes in the Hector's species, the Maui's ‘G' haplotype being one of them.[13]

In 2002, it was not known that Hector's dolphins were capable of swimming from the South Island to the North Island and co-existing with Maui's dolphins. Instead it was understood that the deep waters of the Strait had been an effective barrier between South Island Hector's and its North Island Maui's subspecies for between 15,000 and 16,000 years.[13] It was therefore surprising to researchers that the 2012 Auckland University/Department of Conservation boat survey tissue sampling of Maui's in core range, which included historical samples, revealed three Hector's dolphins identified in this range area (two of them alive) along with another five Hector's being disclosed or sampled between Wellington and Oakura between 1967 and 2012.[14]

There is no evidence so far that the Hector's and Maui's interbreed,[14][15] but, given their close genetic composition, it is likely that they could. Interbreeding may increase the numbers of dolphins in the Maui's range and reduce the risk of inbreeding depression. But such interbreeding could eventually result in a hybridisation of the Maui's back into the Hector's species and lead to a reclassification of Maui's as again the North Island Hector's. Hybridisation in this manner threatens the Otago black stilt[16] and the Chatham Islands' Forbes parakeet[17] and has eliminated the South Island brown teal as a subspecies.[18] Researchers have also identified potential interbreeding as threatening the Maui's with hybrid breakdown and outbreeding depression.[14]

Physical description[edit]

Range of Maui's dolphin (blue) in New Zealand's North Island, with the area covered by the net ban marked in red.

Having distinctive grey, white and black markings and a short snout, they are most easily recognized by their round dorsal fin. Maui's dolphins are generally found close to shore in groups or pods of several dolphins. They have a solidly built body with a gently sloping snout and a unique rounded dorsal fin. (Maui's and Hector's are the only dolphins with a well-rounded black dorsal fin.) Females grow to 1.7 meters long and weigh up to 50 kg. Males are slightly smaller and lighter. The dolphins are known to live up to 20 years.

Population, distribution and presence of Hector's[edit]

Maui's dolphins are classed by the Department of Conservation in the New Zealand Threat Classification System as "Nationally Critical".[19]

Maui's are only found off the west coast of the central North Island of New Zealand. Since 2001 the known range of the Maui's has been between the Kaipara Harbour south to Raglan Harbour.[20] Most sightings of the dolphins are made in their core range about 30 km north and south of the Waikato River mouth.[21] There are old records of dolphin sightings off the east coast of the North Island between Wellington and the Bay of Plenty, which indicates a more widespread and larger previous Maui's or Hector's populations.[12] Historical presence has been confirmed by DNA analysis, dating back to Wellington Harbour in 1873.[20]

A DOC survey report in 2012 estimated 55 adult Maui's remained.[3] This is a marked decrease from a 2004 survey that found the population to be around 100 dolphins.[22] A survey of Maui's dolphins in 1985 estimated their numbers to be at 134.[11] The data from the 2012 report is not directly comparable with earlier aerial surveys because of the different methods used and that the 2012 survey effort had concentrated on the area within one kilometre from shore, but the reports highlight that the population is very small and are indicative of a recent decline.[20]

Whether there are some Maui's migrating southwards, or only Hector's migrating northwards into Taranaki waters, is a matter of debate. A dolphin, either a Hector’s or Maui’s, was caught in Taranaki waters in a set net off Cape Egmont on 2 January 2012. A dolphin, DNA tested as a Hector's, was found washed up on the Opunake beach on 26 April 2012.[23]

Cephalorhynchus dolphin sighting information released by DOC in September 2013 includes listing three public sightings of Hector’s type dolphins along the coastline immediately north of Wellington in late 2011. There were four other sightings between Whanganui and Waitara in early 2012.[24] Another sighting was recorded along the Poverty Bay coast of the North Island at this time as well.

Sightings of this type of dolphin along the coast north of Wellington is infrequent, with the DOC database reporting only seven since 1970.

A 2013 research paper [15] concluded the migration of Hector’s northwards from the South Island occurs but is not frequent. It cited confirmed Hector’s DNA from strandings in 2005 at Peka Peka and in 1967 at Waikanae, along the Horowhenua coastline.

The authors found the DNA evidence of whether the Hector’s were migrating from the east or west coasts of the South Island inconclusive. They suggested there was “the potential for a small and elusive resident population of Hector’s dolphins along the southern part of the North Island, outside the current range of the Maui’s dolphin, or along the northern part of the South Island between the East and West Coast populations of Hector’s dolphins..."

During the 2012/2013 summer DOC conducted five aircraft and six boat searches, between New Plymouth and Hawera, without seeing any Maui's or Hector's.[25]

Between July 2012 and May 2013, 419 MPI observer sea days were totalled on five fishing vessels in this area. More than 10,800 km were covered, with 255,700m of nets deployed between two and seven nautical miles from shore, without seeing any Maui's or Hector's dolphins. By 23 March 2014 observers had been at sea for 757 days.[26]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Vocalizations and echolocation[edit]

Maui's dolphins use echolocation to navigate, communicate and find their food. High-frequency ultrasonic clicks reflect back to the dolphin any objects found in the water.[27]

Foraging and predation[edit]

Maui's dolphins feed on small fish, squid and ocean floor dwelling species like flatfish and cod.[28] Maui's dolphins spend much of their time making dives to find fish on the sea floor. They also find fish and squid in mid water and at times feed near the surface.[27]

Social behaviour and reproduction[edit]

Female Maui's dolphins are not sexually mature until they are 7 - 9 years of age. They then produce one calf every 2 - 4 years.[29]

They have been observed playing (e.g. with seaweed), chasing other dolphins, blowing bubbles, and play fighting.[23]

Very little is known about the Maui's dolphin reproductive physiology.

Threats[edit]

Since records began in 1921 there have been 45 cases of deceased Maui dolphins recorded, though at least six have turned out to be Hector's.[30] According to the Department of Conservation's Incident Database, 31 of these dolphins either did not have their cause of death assessed or it was unknown. Six deaths were linked to possible or known net entanglement, 6 deaths to natural causes, and 2 deaths to human interaction.[31]

Fishing[edit]

Dolphins can get entangled in nets and drown.[32] The DOC Incident Database contains no reports of a Maui's mortality in a trawl net.[20]

Some groups in the fishing industry are against increased bans on set nets into waters further offshore and inside harbours, and say there are other factors responsible for the decline in population, including disease, pollution, mining and natural predation.[33]

Since the first major restrictions on commercial fishing to protect Maui's were imposed in 2003, 12 Cephalorhynchus hectori mortalities have been listed along the West Coast of the North Island. Of these, three have been confirmed as Hector's and the deaths of all bar one were from natural causes. The single death attributed to fishing occurred in January 2012.[31] The most recent dolphin death reported was from old age, with no indications of fishing injury and she was found on a beach near Dargaville on 13 September 2013. An analysis of microsattelite DNA shows the dolphin was a Maui's.

This DOC Incident Database information is contrary to a NABU paper submitted to the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission in June 2013, which referenced back to the Database that the number of fatal Maui's entanglements in fishing nets has increased, from an average of 1 per year, to 1.33 per year, since 2008.[34]

Disease[edit]

In 2006, Brucella were found in a dead Maui's dolphin and DOC says this bacterial infection could have serious ramifications for the small Maui's population. Brucellosis is a disease of terrestrial mammals that can cause late pregnancy abortion, and has been seen in a range of cetacean species elsewhere,[35] though not so far in Hector's or Maui's.

In 2012, post mortems on Hector's and Maui's showed that most were infected with the protozoa Toxoplasma. Two of the three Maui's were killed by toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis is known to reduce fertility in livestock, with cats playing a key role in its transmission. It is not known how toxoplasmosis spread to Maui's and Hector's dolphins, nor is there any funding available for research into this.[20] though Auckland City Council has decided to assist Massey University research by providing cat fecal samples.[36]

Fishing restrictions[edit]

In 2003 a ban on using commercial set nets was added to an existing ban on recreational set netting from Maunganui Bluff (north of Auckland) to Pariokariwa Point (north Taranaki), out to four nautical miles from shore.[37] In 2008 the restriction on set netting was extended out to seven nautical miles from shore along the same coastal area.

In 2008 the existing ban on trawling one nautical mile from this coast was extended to two nautical miles and extended to four nautical miles between Manukau Harbour and Port Waikato.

Set netting is prohibited inside the entrances of the Kaipara, Manukau and Raglan Harbours and Port Waikato. Current presence of Maui's further within these harbours is disputed, though they do visit the harbour mouths.

After what MPI believed at the time in January 2012 was the capture of a Maui's dolphin off Taranaki (though now says it was 'about as likely as not' to have been a Hector's) in June 2012 the New Zealand government announced an interim set net ban extension south around the Taranaki coast to Hawera and out to two nautical miles from shore,[38][39] and set netting only with government observers on board between two and seven nautical miles from land.

In November 2013 the Minister of Conservation Nick Smith, in finalising the Maui's dolphin Threat Management Plan, confirmed[40] an increase of the Taranaki set net ban of two nautical miles, further out to seven nautical miles between Pariokariwa Point and Waiwhakaiho River near New Plymouth. He said this was due to five public sightings of Hector type dolphins off Waitara since 2006.[41] Smith also announced codes of practice for seismic surveys would be implemented, regulations for inshore boat racing and the establishment of a Maui's dolphin Research Advisory Group.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dolphin's death reignites calls for set net ban". New Zealand Herald. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-27. 
  2. ^ "Maui's dolphin - deep trouble". New Zealand Geographic. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  3. ^ a b New Zealand Department of Conservation. "Maui's dolphin abundance estimate: DOC's work". Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  4. ^ "Maui's dolphin danger: 'We're running out of time'". New Zealand Herald. 19 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Dolphin numbers perilously low". stuff.co.nz. 19 May 2014. 
  6. ^ Morton, Jamie (10 June 2014). "NZ 'needs to do the right thing' to save Maui's dolphin". New Zealand Herald. 
  7. ^ "New Zealand rejects calls to further protect Maui's dolphin". Agence France-Presse (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). 12 June 2014. 
  8. ^ "WWF responds to Minister’s ‘challenge’ on Maui’s dolphins". scoop.co.nz. 11 June 2014. 
  9. ^ "Oil and gas risk to Maui's dolphin 'small' - Minister". New Zealand Herald. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  10. ^ "Maui's dolphins- An Overview". WWF. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Maui's dolphin". WWF. Retrieved 9/3/2012. 
  12. ^ a b "Cephalorhynchus hectori ssp. maui". International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2/4/2012. 
  13. ^ a b Hamner, Rebecca M.; Pichler, Heimeier,Constantine, Baker (August 2012). "Genetic differentiation and limited gene flow among fragmented populations of New Zealand endemic Hector's and Maui's dolphins". Conservation Genetics 13 (4): 987–1002. doi:10.1007/s10592-012-0347-9. 
  14. ^ a b c Hamner, R.M. "Estimating the abundance and effective population size of Maui's dolphins using microsatellite genotypes in 2010–11, with retrospective matching to 2001–07.". New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved December 2012. 
  15. ^ a b Hamner, Rebecca; et al (2013). "Long-range movement by Hector’s dolphins provides potential genetic enhancement for critically endangered Maui’s dolphin". MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE. doi:10.1111/mms.12026. 
  16. ^ Wallis, G. "Genetic status of New Zealand black stilt (Himantopus novaezelandiae ) and impact of hybridisation". New Zealand Department of Conservation. 
  17. ^ Greene, T.C. "Forbes' parakeet (Cyanoramphus forbesi) population on Mangere Island, Chatham Islands". New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved December 2012. 
  18. ^ Gemmel, N.J. "Taxonomic status of the brown teal (Anas chlorotis) in Fiordland". New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved December 2012. 
  19. ^ Hitchmough, Rod; Bull, Leigh; Cromarty, Pam (compilers) (2007). New Zealand Threat Classification System lists - 2005. Wellington: Science & Technical Publishing, Department of Conservation. p. 32. ISBN 0-478-14128-9. .
  20. ^ a b c d e "Review of the Maui's Dolphin Threat Management Plan". New Zealand Department of Conservation and Ministry for Primary Industries. Retrieved December 2012. 
  21. ^ "Rare encounter with Mauis dolphins". stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2012-03-14. 
  22. ^ Slooten, Elisabeth; et al (April 2006). "A new abundance estimate for Maui’s dolphin: What does it mean for managing this critically endangered species?". Biological Conversation 128 (4): 576–581. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.013. 
  23. ^ a b Interim set net measures to protect Maui's dolphins, final advice paper. New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries. 10 June 2012. 
  24. ^ "Maui's dolphin sightings database spreadsheet". NZ Department of Conservation. 
  25. ^ "Consultation on a proposed variation to the West Coast North Island Marine Mammal Sanctuary to prohibit commercial and recreational set net fishing between two and seven nautical miles offshore between Pariokariwa Point and the Waiwhakaiho River, Taranaki.". NZ Department of Conservation. 
  26. ^ "Consultation on a proposed variation to the West Coast North Island Marine Mammal Sanctuary to prohibit commercial and recreational set net fishing between two and seven nautical miles offshore between Pariokariwa Point and the Waiwhakaiho River, Taranaki.". NZ Department of Conservation. 
  27. ^ a b "Maui's dolphin - Ecology". WWF. Retrieved 10/3/2012. 
  28. ^ "Dolphins and Porpoises (Families Delphinidae and Phocoenidae)". Treasures of the sea. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  29. ^ "Facts about Maui's dolphin". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 9/3/2012. 
  30. ^ Hamner, Rebecca (2013). "Long-range movement by Hector’s dolphins provides potential genetic enhancement for critically endangered Maui’s dolphin". Marine Mammal Science (Society for Marine Mammalogy). 
  31. ^ a b "Hector's and Maui's incidents 1921 - 2008". Department of Conservation. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  32. ^ http://www.fish.govt.nz/en-nz/Environmental/Hectors+Dolphins/default.htm
  33. ^ "Threats to Maui's dolphins". Department of Conservation. 
  34. ^ "Science-based management of New Zealand's Maui's dolphins, Dr Barbara Maas, NABU International - Foundation for Nature, SC/65a/SM06". 
  35. ^ "Threats not caused by people - disease". New Zealand Department of Conservation. Retrieved December 2012. 
  36. ^ "March 2014 Minutes of the Environment, Climate Change and Natural Heritage Committee". Auckland City Council. 
  37. ^ "Interim Set Net Measures to manage the risk of Maui's dolphin Mortality". Ministry of Fisheries. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  38. ^ "Set net ban extension to protect Maui's Dolphin". stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  39. ^ Cumming, Geoff (3 November 2012). "Maui's dolphin swimming in sea of trouble". New Zealand Herald. 
  40. ^ "Additional Protection and Survey Results Good News for Dolphins". NZ Government. 
  41. ^ "Additional protection proposed for Maui’s dolphin". Minister of Conservation. 
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