Liatris spicata, a member of the family Asteraceae, is commonly known as dense gayfeather and marsh blazing star (Lady Bird Johnson 2013). The perennial L. spicata grows to about one meter in height and is valued for its spike of crowded purple flowers. A spike describes the arrangement of flowers found attached directly to the stem. In addition, the plant can be identified by its linear leaves found growing along the stem to the base of the flower spikes (Lady Bird Johnson 2013). Liatris spicata has been recorded in the following states: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV and is listed as critically imperiled in Maryland and Delaware (Natureserve 2013).
Liatris spicata forms adventitious shoots from their cotyledons (embryonic leaves) and callus (cultured fragments taken from the cotyledons) (Stimart & Mather 1996: 154). Plant growth regulators will induce shoot (or stem) formation (Stimart & Mather 1996: 155). Medium supplemented with 22.2 µm of TDZ, a plant growth regulator, had the highest number of shoots per cotyledon (Stimart & Mather 1996: 154-155). Numbers of shoots per callus was greater (4.9 shoots per callus) with exposure to 4.4 µm of benzyladenine (BA) than with 2.2 µm TDZ (0.3 shoots per callus) (Stimart & Mather 1996: 155).
The purple-rose flower spikes are highly valued in the horticultural industry (Parks & Boyle 2002: 202). The effects of stratification (10 week incubation with moistened paper) and growth hormones (BA thiourea, and gibberellic acid) on seed germination were investigated at the University of Massachusetts (Parks & Boyle 2002: 202). Seed germination was 98% for the stratification treatment at 4 °C for 10 weeks (Parks & Boyle 2002: 203). Germination success was up to 95% with BA mixed with acetone (Parks & Boyle 2002: 203). The study showed that at 4 °C stratification shortened the time for germination and the use of BA accelerated germination (Parks & Boyle 2002: 205).
Espinosa et al. (1991) tested corm sprouting and flowering of Liatris spicata. A corm is a small flattened underground bulb. The optimal temperature for corm sprouting and flowering was 20 °C (Espinosa et al. 1991: 28). The study also showed that it took less time for flowering to occur when the plants were kept at 20 °C (Espinosa et al. 1991: 29).
Medve (1985: 152) studied the effects of fire on root hairs and fungal mycorrhizae or mass of filaments associated with L. spicata from Pensylvania. Plants from the three treatments (two consecutive spring burns, one spring burn, and area not burned) retained mycorrhizae and showed no significant differences in root hairs (Medve 1985: 153). Adaptation to fires may explain the results (Medve 1985: 154).
Espinosa I., Healy W. & Roh M. 1991. The role of temperature and photoperiod on Liatris spicata shoot development. Journal of American society of horticulture 116:27-29.
Lady Bird Johnson. 2013. Liatris spicata. Available at: http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LISP; accessed on: November 15, 2013.
Medve, R. 1985. The effect of fire on the root hairs and mycorrhizae of Liatris Spicata. Ohio Journal of Science 85: 151-154.
NatureServe Explorer. 2013. Available at: http://www.natureserve.org; accessed on: November 15, 2013.
Parks C. A. & Boyle T. H. 2002. Germination of Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. seed is enhanced by stratification, Benzyladenine, or Thiourea but not Gibberellic acid. HortScience 37:202-205.
Stimart, D. P., Mather J. C. 1996. Regenerating adventitious shoots from in vitro cultur of Liatris spicata (l.) Willd. cotyledons. HortScience 31: 154-155.
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Range and Habitat in Illinois
Flower-Visiting Insects of Marsh Blazingstar in Illinois
(bees suck nectar or collect pollen; Syrphid flies and beetles feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; observations are from Graenicher, Steury et al., Smith et al., and Grundel et al. as indicated below)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera (Gnd); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus sn cp (Gr), Bombus bimaculatus (Gnd), Bombus fraternus (Smh), Bombus griseocollis sn cp (Gr, Smh, Gnd), Bombus impatiens (Gnd), Bombus pensylvanicus sn cp fq (Gr, Smh); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata (SDO); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn cp (Gr), Melissodes trinodis sn cp (Gr); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica fq (SDO, Smh, Gnd); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile addenda sn cp (Gr), Megachile latimanus sn cp (Gr), Megachile mendica (SDO, Gnd)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon texanus texanus cp (Gr), Halictus ligatus (Smh), Lasioglossum imitatum (Smh)
Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata sn (Gr); Syrphidae: Eristalis tenax fp (Gr), Sphaerophoria contiqua fp (Gr)
Pieridae: Colias philodice sn (Gr), Pieris rapae sn (Gr); Nymphalidae: Boloria selene myrina sn (Gr), Cercyonis pegala sn (Gr), Danaus plexippus sn (Gr), Speyeria cybele sn (Gr), Speyeria idalia sn (Gr)
Hesperiidae: Polites peckius sn (Gr), Polites themistocles sn (Gr)
Noctuidae: Mythimna unipuncta sn (Gr)
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus fp (Gr)
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Liatris spicata
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Liatris spicata
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled
Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Liatris spicata var. resinosa is found in the southern part of the species natural range, the variable plants have only 5 or 6 flowers per head and the heads are more widely spaced on the stems, these differences are more pronounced when the plants are found in drier and coastal habitats.
Liatris spicata is a garden flower in many countries around the world, grown for its showy purple flowers (pink or white in some cultivars). The tall spikes of purple flowers appear in July and August. It thrives in full sun in ordinary garden soil and is excellent for attracting birds and butterflies. Under cultivation it is found under many names including; button snakewort, Kansas gay feather, blazing star, Liatris callilepis.
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- http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LISP USDA PLANTS database
- Henry A. Gleason (1963). The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada: Illustrated by Original Drawings : 3 Vol. New York Botanical Garden. p. 498.
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A geographic disjunction within Liatris spicata occurs between the coastal plain element (var. resinosa) and the inland/montane element (var. spicata), although plants morphologically referable to var. resinosa occasionally are encountered in montane North Carolina and Tennessee and var. spicata-like plants occur in the range of var. resinosa. Apparent intergrades between the two taxa are common, especially in Tennessee and Alabama. The geographical gap is widest in Georgia and Alabama. Neither variety occurs naturally west of the Mississippi River, except for a historical record of var. spicata in Oregon County, Missouri (Kellogg s.n., MO), where the population has now been genetically "swamped" by L. pycnostachya (G. A. Yatskievych, pers. comm.).
In both var. spicata and var. resinosa, marked variation (dimorphism) in head size occurs, the large-headed plants apparently occurring in scattered geographic enclaves without a broader geographic pattern. It seems possible that independent populational origins of polyploidy might underlie the variation.
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