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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual herb up to 1 m tall. Stems ribbed, hairy. Leaves mostly alternate, sometimes opposite, ovate-triangular, up to 10 × 7 cm, 3 veined from the base, with appressed greyish hairs, particularly below, discolorous; margin irregularly toothed. Petiole irregularly winged and auriculate on the stem. Capitula solitary at the ends of branches, c. 2.5 cm in diameter. Rays bright yellow, elliptic-obovate, c. 1 cm long, 3-toothed at the apex. Involucral bracts up to 1.3 cm long, linear, appressed greyish hairy.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution in Egypt

Nile region (Aswan), oases (Kharga) and Sinai (El Arish).

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Global Distribution

Native to south and central America, naturalized in many regions of the Old World, pantropical weed.

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Worldwide distribution

Native to Southwestern USA and Mexico; introduced into West Indies, tropical Africa and northern S Africa.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 10–50(–120+) cm (annuals, internodes not winged). Leaves all or mostly alternate (proximal usually opposite); blades deltate-ovate or rhombic to lanceolate, 3–8(–12+) × 2–4(–6+) cm, bases broadly cuneate to ± truncate, margins coarsely toothed to subentire, apices acute to attenuate, faces strigoso-scabrellous to sericeous. Heads usually borne singly, sometimes 2–3+ in loose, cymiform or corymbiform arrays. Involucres ± hemispheric to saucerlike, 10–20+ mm diam. Phyllaries 12–18+ in 1–2 series, ± erect to spreading, lance-ovate or lance-linear to linear, 6–8+ mm. Ray florets (8–)12–15+; laminae 8–10(–20+) mm. Disc florets 80–150+; corollas yellow. Cypselae dark brown to blackish, narrowly obovate, 3.5–5+ mm, faces ± strigillose; pappi 0.5–1(–2) mm (0 on ray cypselae). 2n = 34.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Ximenesia encelioides Cavanilles, Icon. 2: 60, plate 178. 1793 (as enceliodes); Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata (B. L. Robinson & Greenman) J. R. Coleman; V. encelioides var. exauriculata B. L. Robinson & Greenman
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Type Information

Type fragment for Verbesina scabra Benth.
Catalog Number: US 1803327
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): K. Hartweg
Year Collected: 1839
Locality: Zitacuaro., Michoacán, Mexico, North America
  • Type fragment: Bentham, G. 1840. Pl. Hartw. 41.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isotype for Encelia albescens A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 46130
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. Palmer
Year Collected: 1869
Locality: Sonora, Mexico, North America
  • Isotype: Gray, A. 1873. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 8: 658.
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Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Isolectotype for Verbesina encelioides subsp. exauriculata B.L. Rob. & Greenm.
Catalog Number: US 352989
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. S. Hitchcock
Year Collected: 1895
Locality: Finney, Kansas, United States, North America
  • Isolectotype: Robinson, B. L. & Greenman, J. M. 1899. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 34: 544.; Coleman, -. 1966. Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 76: 475.
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Ecology

Habitat

Waste ground, roadsides, edges of cultivation.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Golden Crownbeard in Illinois

Verbesina encelioides (Golden Crownbeard) introduced
(this plant is adventive from the southern Plains; insect activity is unspecified; information is limited; this observation is from Mawdsley)

Beetles
Cleridae: Trichodes bibalteatus (Mwd)

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Verbesina encelioides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Verbesina encelioides

Verbesina encelioides is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. The species is native to the United States and Mexico.[1] It is naturalized in the Middle East, Spain, Argentina, Australia and the Pacific islands.[2] Common names include golden crownbeard, cowpen daisy, butter daisy, crown-beard, American dogweed and South African daisy.,[1][3]

The species is considered as an intruder, which spreads over fertile land and prevents development of any other local species in the area, due to its high propagation & density. Research elucidates to an allelopathic behavior of the plant[4] which explains its advantage, or takeover, over other species.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Taxon: Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray". United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  2. ^ "Crown Beard (Verbesina encelioides)". Victorian Resources Online. Department of Primary Industries. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  3. ^ "Verbesina encelioides". Native Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  4. ^ "Allelopathic potential of Verbesina encelioides root leachate in soil". Canadian Journal of Botany, 1999, Vol. 77, No. 10 pp. 1419-1424. Canadian Journal of Botany. Retrieved 17 May 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.  ISBN 0-89672-614-2


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Notes

Comments

Native distribution of Verbesina encelioides in the flora area is uncertain. Plants of Verbesina encelioides from ca. 100°W (e.g., c Texas) and eastward usually have auriculate petiole bases and have been called var. encelioides; plants from the west usually lack auricles and have been called var. exauriculata.
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