Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This plant is about 2-3' tall while in flower. There is a rosette of basal leaves up to 6" long and 4" wide on long petioles. They are medium green, sandpapery in texture, coarsely serrated along the margins, and broadly lanceolate, ovate, or cordate. From the middle of this rosette, a stout flowering stalk develops, which has smaller alternate leaves on short petioles. Usually there are erect side stems that each develop an inflorescence. An inflorescence consists of flat-headed clusters of small white flowerheads; usually, there are several of them bunched loosely together on the same plant. Each flowerhead is about 1/3" across, consisting primarily of numerous disk florets, while the few ray florets are greatly reduced in size and barely perceptible. The overall effect is similar to a head of cauliflower. The blooming period occurs from late spring to mid-summer, and lasts about 2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. Eventually, the flowerheads turn brown, and the achenes develop without tufts of hair. The central taproot is quite thickened and somewhat tuberous in appearance, while rhizomes promote the vegetative spread of this plant.
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Description

General: Sunflower Family (Asteraceae). Wild quinine is a perennial, herbaceous forb. Stiff, upright, sometimes hairy stems are single, or branched near the top. Stems (4-12 dm in height) grow from a swollen tuberous root. The leaves are ovate to lanceolate with wavy, toothed margins. Basal leaves are 38 cm long. Stem leaves are alternate, smaller, and sparsely distributed along the stems. The long-lasting, somewhat-yarrow-like flower heads are composed of grayish-white, globular, compound flowers that are 4-6 mm wide. Five, unusually short, ray flowers (1-2mm long) surround the central disk flower corollas, which are 2.5-3 mm long. Only the ray flowers are fertile. The heads are grouped together into an inflorescent spray up to 20 cm in diameter. Flowers have a pleasant but mild medicinal fragrance. The plant flowers from summer through the autumn months.

Distribution: For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Habitat: Wild quinine occurs in dry, somewhat heavy soils in prairies, fields, open wooded areas, rocky woods, and hillsides.

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Alternative names

American feverfew, eastern feverfew, eastern parthenium

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Wild Quinine occurs occasionally in the majority of counties in Illinois, however it is uncommon or absent in many areas of western and SE Illinois (see Distribution Map). In high quality habitats, Wild Quinine can be locally common, while in disturbed areas it is uncommon, possibly because of the limited dispersion of its seeds. Habitats include mesic black soil prairies, sand prairies, openings in rocky upland forests, savannas, scrubby barrens, limestone glades, and thickets. Faunal Associations
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium integrifolium var. integrifolium :
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium auriculatum Britton:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium hispidum var. hispidum :
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium hispidum var. auriculatum (Britton) Rollins:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium hispidum Raf.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium radfordii Mears:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium integrifolium var. mabryanum Mears:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium integrifolium var. hispidum (Raf.) Mears:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium integrifolium var. henryanum Mears:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum (Britton) Cornelius ex Cronquist:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Parthenium integrifolium L.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 30–60(–100+) cm. Leaf blades ovate to lanceolate, 30–350+ × 20–120+ mm, margins usually crenate to serrate, sometimes coarsely toothed or somewhat lobed (then mostly toward bases), faces hispid to hirtellous or ± scabrous, gland-dotted. Heads radiate, borne in corymbiform to paniculiform arrays. Peduncles 1–8(–12+) mm. Phyllaries: outer 5(–6) lanceolate to broadly ovate, 3–5 mm, inner 5(–6) ± orbiculate, 4–6 mm. Pistillate florets 5(–6); corolla laminae ovate to oblong or orbiculate, 1–2+ mm. Disc florets 15–35+. Cypselae ± obovoid, 3–4+ mm; pappus-like enations 0 or 2(–4), erect to spreading, ± subulate or threadlike, fragile, 0.3–0.6+ mm. 2n = 72.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Wild Quinine occurs occasionally in the majority of counties in Illinois, however it is uncommon or absent in many areas of western and SE Illinois (see Distribution Map). In high quality habitats, Wild Quinine can be locally common, while in disturbed areas it is uncommon, possibly because of the limited dispersion of its seeds. Habitats include mesic black soil prairies, sand prairies, openings in rocky upland forests, savannas, scrubby barrens, limestone glades, and thickets. Faunal Associations
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Dispersal

Establishment

Wild quinine is a very hardy addition to the garden as it is tolerant of both hot and cold weather. The plants make a nice addition to native plant gardens because of their wild growth form. Wild quinine plants are easily propagated by seed. Plant seeds in the fall or early winter or pre-treat them with 4 to 6 weeks of cold moist stratification to improve germination. Wild quinine will grow best in fertile, well-drained soils in full-sun to light shade.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Wild Quinine in Illinois

Parthenium integrifolium (Wild Quinine)
(Bees collect pollen or suck nectar; beetles feed on pollen or suck nectar; other insects suck nectar; one observation is from MacRae as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile montivaga cp; Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn cp, Heriades variolosa variolosa sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq, Augochloropsis metallica metallica sn, Halictus confusus sn cp, Halictus ligatus sn, Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae sn

Wasps
Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Lestica confluentus, Oxybelus emarginatus, Oxybelus mexicanus fq; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris compacta, Cerceris rufopicta; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Leionotus ziziae (Rb, MS), Stenodynerus ammonia, Stenodynerus anormis, Stenodynerus histrionalis; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta; Chrysididae: Hedychrum parvum; Braconidae: Vipio vulgaris

Sawflies
Argidae: Arge humeralis

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis arbustorum, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Syritta pipiens, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus; Empidae: Empis clausa; Conopidae: Zodion fulvifrons; Tachinidae: Cylindromyia euchenor, Gymnoclytia occidua, Phasia purpurascens, Uramya pristis; Sarcophagidae: Blaesoxipha hunteri, Helicobia rapax, Senotainia rubriventris, Sphixapata trilineata fq; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina, Stomoxys calcitrans; Anthomyiidae: Calythea nigricans, Calythea pratincola; Milichiidae: Pholeomyia indecora

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera ornata (McR); Cerambycidae: Typocerus sinuatus sn fq; Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica cristata sn, Diabrotica undecimpunctata fp; Rhipiphoridae: Macrosiagon limbata lgf; Scarabaeidae (Cetonniae): Trichiotinus piger sn fp fq; Scraptiidae: Pentaria trifasciatus sn

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus, Lygus lineolaris fq; Thyreocoridae: Corimelaena pulicarius

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Rank provided by NCHP during data exchange Apr/1994.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

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Threats

Comments: The limited distribution of this species makes it highly threatened by succession, human disturbance, land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and to a lesser extent forest management practices (harvest, site prep, Rx fire) (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Pests and potential problems

This plant has no known serious disease or insect problems.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

These materials are readily available from commercial plant sources. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Control

Please contact your local agricultural extension specialist or county weed specialist to learn what works best in your area and how to use it safely. Always read label and safety instructions for each control method. Trade names and control measures appear in this document only to provide specific information. USDA, NRCS does not guarantee or warranty the products and control methods named, and other products may be equally effective.

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Weediness

This plant may become weedy or invasive in some regions or habitats and may displace desirable vegetation if not properly managed. Please consult with your local NRCS Field Office, Cooperative Extension Service office, or state natural resource or agricultural department regarding its status and use. Weed information is also available from the PLANTS Web site.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Cultivation

The preference is full sun and mesic conditions. However, a small amount of shade is tolerated, and the soil can vary from moist to slightly dry. A fertile loamy soil is preferred, although the presence of some sand or rocky material is tolerated. While established plants are fairly easy to grow, recent transplants can be temperamental. It is important to put the transplants into the ground after danger of hard frost has passed, but before the period of active growth occurs during the late spring and early summer. Foliar disease isn't a significant problem. During a drought, some of the lower leaves may turn yellow and wither away.
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Uses

Ethnobotanic: The Catawba and other tribes in the southeastern United States used wild quinine for medicinal and veterinary purposes. The leaves contain tannin, which is thought to be beneficial for treating burns. The leaves were mashed into a moist, thick paste, which was then applied as a poultice to burns. Burns were also treated by placing the whole, fresh leaves over the wounded area. Tea from the boiled roots was used to treat dysentery. Ashes from burned leaves were used to rub the skin of horses suffering from sore backs.

Other: The flowers make long-lasting additions to cut bouquets.

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Wikipedia

Parthenium integrifolium

Parthenium integrifolium is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common names wild quinine, American feverfew, and eastern feverfew. It is native to the eastern United States.[1][2]

This plant is a perennial herb growing 30 to 60 centimeters tall, but known to exceed one meter at times. The glandular leaves are oval to lance-shaped and variable in size. They have serrated, toothed, or lobed edges. The inflorescence is an array of several flower heads containing whitish disc flowers and 5 to 6 ray flowers.[2] The "flowers have a pleasant but mild medicinal fragrance."[3]

This plant grows in disturbed areas[2] as well as prairies, woods, and hillsides. It tolerates hot and cold climates and can be used as a garden plant in many areas.[3]

The leaves of the plant contain tannins and the plant was used for medicinal and veterinary purposes by Native Americans. The Catawba people used it as a poultice to treat burns. The ashes were applied to horses with "sore backs".[3][4] The roots were made into a tea to treat dysentery.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parthenium integrifolium. NatureServe.
  2. ^ a b c Parthenium integrifolium. Flora of North America.
  3. ^ a b c d Parthenium integrifolium. USDA NRCS Plant Guide.
  4. ^ Parthenium integrifolium. University of Michigan Ethnobotany.
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Notes

Comments

As evidenced by the synonymy, Parthenium integrifolium as here circumscribed has been variously partitioned by other taxonomists. For the present, I see no justification for segregating species from, or for formal recognition of infraspecific taxa within P. integrifolium.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Broad-sense view, including material treated by Kartesz (1994) as Parthenium integrifolium var. henryanum.

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Comments: This is the record for Parthenium integrifolium in the narrow sense. Kartesz (1999) defines P. integrifolium more narrowly than in previous editions, elevating P. integrifoium var. auriculatim and P. integrifolium var. hispidum to full species (Parthenium auriculatum and Parthenium hispidum, respectively).

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Comments: Treated as species level by Kartesz (1999); has also been treated as a variety of Parthenium integrifolium (e.g., by Kartesz, 1994).

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