Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Inhabits sand-bottomed to rock-bottomed pools and runs of creeks and small to medium rivers. Also found in impoundments (Ref. 5723, 10294). Adult feeds on small benthic invertebrates, especially microcrustacea and midge larvae (Ref. 10294).
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Distribution

Range Description

Upper and middle Mobile drainage, Alabama, Georgia, and southeastern Tennessee (absent from Tombigbee River system); uplands and outliers of southern Ohio River basin and Ozarks, west to eastern Oklahoma, south to northern Alabama and northern Georgia, east to western Virginia, western North Carolina; northern Ohio River basin and north into middle part of upper Mississippi River basin to southeastern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin (Fago and Hauber 1993), Pennsylvania, and West Virginia; southern Great Lakes basin, north to western New York, southern Ontario, Michigan, and southern Wisconsin. Avoids lowlands of central Mississippi River basin. See Parker (1989) for information on status in Canada.
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Global Range: Upper and middle Mobile drainage, Alabama, Georgia, and southeastern Tennessee (absent from Tombigbee River system); uplands and outliers of southern Ohio River basin and Ozarks, west to eastern Oklahoma, south to northern Alabama and northern Georgia, east to western Virginia, western North Carolina; northern Ohio River basin and north into middle part of upper Mississippi River basin to southeastern Minnesota, southern Wisconsin (Fago and Hauber 1993), Pennsylvania, and West Virginia; southern Great Lakes basin, north to western New York, southern Ontario, Michigan, and southern Wisconsin. Avoids lowlands of central Mississippi River basin. See Parker (1989) for information on status in Canada.

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North America: lower Great Lakes and Mississippi River basin from Ontario in Canada and from New York to southeastern Minnesota in USA and south to northern Alabama and eastern Oklahoma, USA; upper and middle Mobile Bay drainage in Georgia, Alabama and southeastern Tennessee in USA.
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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Central U.S.A. and Canada.
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Physical Description

Size

Maximum size: 510 mm TL
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Max. size

51.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)); max. published weight: 1,020 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 12193)
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Length: 40 cm

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Typical of gravelly to rocky, occasionally sandy and silty, creeks and small to medium rivers; prefers pools. Rarely in impoundments. Spawns in gravel and fine rubble runs and riffles in water about 0.2-0.6 m deep (Lee et al. 1980, Becker 1983).

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.425 - 1

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.425 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Typical of gravelly to rocky, occasionally sandy and silty, creeks and small to medium rivers; prefers pools. Rarely in impoundments. Spawns in gravel and fine rubble runs and riffles in water about 0.2-0.6 m deep (Lee et al. 1980, Becker 1983).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

May migrate up to at least 10 km to spawning areas (Becker 1983).

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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits sand-bottomed to rock-bottomed pools and runs of creeks and small to medium rivers. Also found in impoundments.
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Comments: Eats mainly microcrustaceans, aquatic insects, detritus, and algae sucked up from bottom (Lee et al. 1980, Scott and Crossman 1973).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Spawns in spring. Sexually mature at age II-VI (Becker 1983).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Moxostoma duquesnii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 11 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTATATCTTGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGGATAGTAGGAACTGCCTTAAGCCTTCTAATTCGAGCCGAACTAAGTCAACCTGGGTCACTCCTCGGTGATGATCAAATTTATAATGTTATTGTTACCGCCCATGCCTTCGTCATAATTTTCTTTATAGTAATACCCATTTTAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTCGTACCATTAATGATTGGAGCCCCAGACATGGCATTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTACCCCCTTCCTTCCTGCTACTATTAGCCTCTTCCGGGGTTGAGGCTGGAGCCGGAACAGGATGAACAGTATACCCGCCCCTTGCTGGCAATCTTGCTCATGCTGGAGCCTCTGTAGATCTAACCATTTTTTCTCTGCACCTAGCAGGTGTTTCATCAATTCTTGGAGCAATTAATTTCATTACCACAACAATCAATATGAAACCCCCAGCCATCTCTCAATATCAAACTCCCCTGTTTGTCTGAGCTGTACTTGTAACAGCTGTTCTTCTTCTTTTATCACTACCTGTCCTAGCTGCGGGCATCACCATGCTCTTAACANNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Moxostoma duquesnii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 11
Specimens with Barcodes: 12
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations, large population size, and lack of major threats. Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely to be relatively stable, or the species may be declining but not fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories under Criterion A (reduction in population size).
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Population

Population
This species is represented by a large number of subpopulations and locations.

Total adult population size is unknown but relatively large.

Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely to be relatively stable or slowly declining.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.
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Comments: Localized threats may exist, but on a range-wide scale no major threats are known.

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Not Evaluated
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research actions.

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Wikipedia

Black Redhorse

The Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesni), (or duquesnii) is a species of freshwater fish endemic to Ontario and the eastern half of the United States, where it lives in streams and small to medium rivers.

A bottom-feeder, it feeds on microcrustaceans, aquatic insects, detritus, and algae. The black redhorse spawns in the spring.

This species has been identified as Threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). It is currently being considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA).

The Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei) is a member of the Sucker family (Catostomidae) and has the following characteristics:

  • Laterally compressed body.
  • Long rounded snout which overhangs inferior mouth.
  • Narrow upper lip and thick, slightly concave lower lip.
  • Has 43 to 51 lateral line scales.
  • Club-shaped pharyngeal teeth.
  • Dorsal surface and upper sides are grey or olive brown with a silver-blue overtone; sides are lighter and usually silvery blue; ventral surface is silver to milky white.
  • All fins are slate grey.
  • Scale edges are dark.
  • Females show little or no spawning colour, males have bold longitudinal stripes of black and colour (orange to pink) along their sides.
  • Maximum known length is 66 cm; maximum weight is 3.2 kg. see reference #1


Distribution[edit]

The Black Redhorse has a wide, but disjunct, distribution in eastern North America. It is found from Alabama and Mississippi in the south to Ontario and Michigan in the north, and from New York in the east to Oklahoma and Minnesota in the west. In Canada, it is limited to southwestern Ontario where it occurs in only six watersheds. In the Lake Huron drainage, it is found in the Bayfield River, Maitland River and Ausable River watersheds. In the Lake Erie drainage, it is known from the Catfish Creek (extirpated) and Grand River watersheds. It is also present in the Thames River watershed in the Lake St. Clair drainage.

Habitat and Life History[edit]

The Black Redhorse usually lives in moderately sized rivers and streams, 25 to 130 m wide, up to 1.8 m in depth, and with generally moderate to fast currents. It is rarely found associated with aquatic vegetation. Substrates include rubble, gravel, sand, boulders and silt. In summer, they generally prefer pools and overwinter in deeper pools. In the spring, Black Redhorse migrate to spawning habitats. Spring spawning has been observed in riffle habitats at water temperatures between 15°C and 21°C, and over a variety of substrates from fine gravel to large cobble. Eggs are nonadhesive and range in size from 2.6 to 2.9 mm. The age at maturity is between two and six years. Lifespan increases with latitude and some individuals reach 16 years of age.

Diet[edit]

Adult Black Redhorse are bottom feeders and eat crustaceans and insects. The younger fish (less than 65 mm) are thought to prefer plankton.

Threats[edit]

The availability of suitable habitat limits the distribution of the Black Redhorse in Canada, rendering its distribution highly fragmented. Habitat may be altered or impaired through urbanization and agricultural activities that increase siltation, turbidity, and change flow regimes. Its restricted spawning habitat preferences make recruitment vulnerable to changes in flow regime. Dams and impoundment of riverine habitats also restrict movements of fish. Incidental catches of Black Redhorse by sport fishers have been reported and may impact populations.

Similar Species[edit]

There are a total of seven Redhorse species in Canada (no information is available here for American Redhorse species), and the Black Redhorse is distinguishable based on a combination of tail colour, lip morphology and lateral line scale count.

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Mobile Bay drainage population is racially distinct from all other populations (see Lee et al. 1980).

Harris and Mayden (2001) used molecular data to examine phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Catostomidae. In all trees, Scartomyzon was paraphyletic and embedded in Moxostoma, and Catostomus was never recovered as monophyletic (Xyrauchen was embedded within Catostomus). They concluded that the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic composition of taxa presently included in Moxostoma and Scartomyzon are in need of further study, as are the relationships and composition of the genera Catostomus, Chasmistes, Deltistes, and Xyrauchen, and the phylogenetic affinites of Erimyzon and Minytrema.

See also Smith (1992) for a study of the phylogeny and biogeography of the Catostomidae.

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